The Philosopher's Way: Thinking Critically About Profound Ideas

The Philosopher's Way: Thinking Critically About Profound Ideas

By: John Chaffee (author)Paperback

1 - 2 weeks availability

Description

Students learn to critically think about philosophy. The Philosopher's Way inspires students to think like a philosopher, helping them become more accomplished critical thinkers and develop the analytical tools needed to think philosophically about important issues. This text features readings from major philosophical texts and commentary to guide students in their understanding of the topics. It is organized by questions central to the main branches of philosophy and examines the ideas of philosophers past and present. A better teaching and learning experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. Here's how: *Personalize Learning - MySearchLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. *Improve Critical Thinking - Critical thinking features challenge students to go beyond their reading and explore the connections philosophy has in their everyday lives. *Engage Students - Full-color visuals bring topics to life, and writing examples give students a foundation for their own philosophical exploration. *Support Instructors - MySearchLab, Instructor's Manual, Test Bank, MyTest, and PowerPoint slides are available.

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Contents

1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1What is Philosophy? Thinking Philosophically About Life Chapter 2 What is the Philosopher's Way? Socrates and the Examined Life Chapter 3 Who are You? Consciousness, Identity, and the Self Chapter 4 Are You Free? Freedom and Determinism Chapter 5 How Can We Know the Nature of Reality? Philosophical Foundations Chapter 6 What is Real? What is True? Further Explorations Chapter 7 Is there a Spiritual Reality? Exploring the Philosophy of Religion Chapter 8 Are there Moral Truths?Thinking About Ethics Chapter 9 What are Right Actions? Constructing an Ethical Theory 2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Chapter 1: What is Philosophy? Thinking Philosophically About Life 1.1 Why Study Philosophy? 1.2 Defining Philosophy Philosophy Is the Pursuit of Wisdom Philosophy Begins with Wonder Philosophy Is a Dynamic Process The Ultimate Aim of Philosophy 1.3 Thinking Philosophically: Becoming a Critical Thinker Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Philosophy of Life? Qualities of a Critical Thinker Thinking Philosophically Who Are Your Models of Critical Thinking? The Process of Critical Thinking Thinking Philosophically Applying the Critical Thinking Model Stages in Critical Thinking 1.4 Understanding Arguments The Structure of Arguments Evaluating Arguments Deductive Arguments Inductive Arguments Informal Fallacies Thinking Philosophically Evaluating Arguments 1.5 Branches of Philosophy Metaphysics Thinking Philosophically Are You Willing to Question Your Beliefs? Thinking Philosophically How Do You Know What Is True? Epistemology Ethics Thinking Philosophically Do You Have a Moral Philosophy? Political and Social Philosophy Aesthetics 1.6 Reading Critically: Working with Primary Sources Bertrand Russell, from The Value of Philosophy Reading Critically Analyzing Russell on the Value of Philosophy 1.7 Making Connections: The Search for a Meaningful Life Thinking Philosophically What Do You Hope to Learn? Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Your Beliefs visual summary chapter review for further reading, viewing & research Chapter 2: What is the Philosopher's Way? Socrates and the Examined Life 2.1 Socrates: A Model for Humanity Hesiod, Homer, and the Birth of Philosophy Karl Jaspers, The Axial Period A Man of Greece A Midwife of Ideas The Wisest of Men? Plato, from The Apology Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on Wisdom and Humility 2.2 The Socratic Method Plato, from The Republic Reading Critically Analyzing a Socratic Dialogue 2.3 Socrates' Central Concern: The Soul Plato, from The Apology Reading Critically Analyzing the Core Teachings of Socrates 2.4 The Trial and Death of Socrates Plato, from The Apology Thinking Philosophically Countering Personal Attacks Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on Trial 2.5 Making Connections: Socrates' Legacy Thinking Philosophically Is Socrates Relevant Today? Writing About Philosophy A Socratic Dialogue visual summary chapter review for further reading, viewing & research Chapter 3: Who are You? Consciousness, Identity, and the Self 3.1 Know Thyself? Thinking Philosophically Do You Know Yourself? 3.2 The Soul Is Immortal: Socrates and Plato Plato, from Phaedo Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on the Self Plato, from Phaedrus, The Chariot Analogy 3.3 St. Augustine's Synthesis of Plato and Christianity Thinking Philosophically Do you believe in an immortal soul? 3.4 Descartes' Modern Perspective on the Self Rene Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Thinking Philosophically Are you a Seeker After Truth? Reading Critically Analyzing Descartes on the Mind/Body Problem 3.5 The Self Is Consciousness: Locke John Locke, from On Personal Identity Thinking Philosophically Applying Locke's Ideas Reading Critically Analyzing Locke on the Conscious Self 3.6 There Is No Self: Hume David Hume, from On Personal Identity Reading Critically Analyzing Hume on the Absence of Self 3.7 We Construct the Self: Kant Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason Thinking Philosophically Sense, Perception, and Your Self Reading Critically Analyzing Kant's Unity of Consciousness 3.8 The Self Is Multi-Layered: Freud Sigmund Freud, from An Outline of Psychoanalysis Reading Critically Analyzing Freud's Ideas about Mind 3.9 The Self Is How You Behave: Ryle Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind Reading Critically Analyzing Ryle's View of Self as Behavior 3.10 The Self Is the Brain: Materialism Churchland, from On Eliminative Materialism Reading Critically Analyzing Churchland's Materialism 3.11 The Self is Embodied Subjectivity: Husserl and Merleau-Ponty Marcel Proust, from In Search of Time Lost Thinking Philosophically Applying Phenomenology Marcel Proust, from Within a Budding Grove 3.12 Buddhist Concepts of Self Milindaphanha, The Simile of the Chariot Reading Critically Analyzing the Buddhist Chariot Analogy 3.13 Making Connections: In Search of the Self Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Concept of the Self? Writing About Philosophy Defining the Self visual summary chapter review for further reading, viewing & research Chapter 4: Are You Free? Freedom and Determinism 4.1 Are You the Master of Your Fate? Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Assumptions About Freedom? 4.2 Determinism Baron d'Holbach, from The System of Nature Thinking Philosophically Do You Choose Freely? Reading Critically Analyzing Baron d'Holbach on the Illusion of Freedom 4.3 Compatibilism External Constraints May Limit Freedom: Stace W. T. Stace, from Religion and the Modern Mind Internal Constraints May Also Limit Freedom: Schlick Free Will Is a Human Creation: Dennett Reading Critically Evaluating Compatibilism 4.4 Indeterminism and Libertarianism We Live in a World of Possibilities: James William James, from The Will to Believe Reading Critically Analyzing James on Free Will We Create Ourselves Through Our Choices: Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism Reading Critically Analyzing Sartre on Freedom, Choice, and Responsibility 4.5 A Feminist Analysis of Freedom Jean Grimshaw, from Autonomy and Identity in Feminist Thinking Reading Critically Analyzing Jean Grimshaw on Autonomy 4.6 Making Connections: Creating a Synthesis Overcoming Limitations to Your Freedom Confronting External Constraints Confronting Internal Constraints Thinking Philosophically What Are the Limitations to Your Freedom? Writing About Philosophy Understanding Personal Freedom visual summary chapter review for further reading, viewing & research Chapter 5: How Can We Know the Nature of Reality? Philosophical Foundations 5.1 What Is the Nature of Reality? Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Concept of Reality? 5.2 Reality Is the Eternal Realm of the Forms: Plato The Divided Line The Theory of Innate Ideas Plato, from Meno Reading Critically Analyzing Plato's Theory of Innate Ideas The Path to Knowledge of Reality: The Cave Allegory Plato, from The Republic Reading Critically Analyzing Plato's Allegory of the Cave 5.3 Reality Is the Natural World: Aristotle Aristotle's Two Categories: Matter and Form Entelechy The Four Causes Aristotle, from Metaphysics Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle's Concept of Reality 5.4 Can Reality Be Known? Descartes Rene Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Reading Critically Analyzing Descartes' Radical Doubt 5.5 Making Connections: Your Beliefs About the World Thinking Philosophically Evaluating the Accuracy of Your Beliefs Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Philosophical Themes in a Fictional Work visual summary chapter review for further reading, viewing & research Chapter 6: What is Real? What is True? Further Explorations 6.1 Questioning Independent Reality Bertrand Russell, from Appearance and Reality Reading Critically How Do You Know What Is "Real"? 6.2 All Knowledge Comes from Experience: Locke Locke's Critique of "Universality" John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Leibniz's Case Against Locke Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays Concerning Human Understanding Locke's Causal Theory of Perception John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Reading Critically Analyzing Locke's Empirical View 6.3 Reality Depends on Perception: Berkeley George Berkeley, from A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge Reading Critically Analyzing Berkeley's Subjective Idealism 6.4 Understanding Reality Demands Skepticism: Hume David Hume, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding Reading Critically Analyzing Hume's Case for Skepticism 6.5 We Constitute Our World: Kant Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Hume's Challenge to Philosophy Kant's Solution: Transcendental Idealism Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason Two Realities: Phenomenal and Noumenal Reading Critically Analyzing Kant's Synthesizing Project Applying Kant's Theory Three Accounts of the Assassination of Malcolm X Reading Critically How Is Knowledge Constructed? 6.6 Emotions Shape Our Understanding: Jaggar Alison M. Jaggar, from Love and Knowledge: Emotion in Epistemology Reading Critically Analyzing Jaggar on the Role of Emotions 6.7 Making Connections: Developing Informed Beliefs Thinking Philosophically What Are the Limits of Your Knowledge? Writing About Philosophy Constructing Knowledge visual summary chapter review for further reading, viewing & research Chapter 7: Is there a Spiritual Reality? Exploring the Philosophy of Religion 7.1 Thinking Philosophically About Religious Beliefs Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Religious Beliefs? 7.2 What Is Religion? Ways of Defining Religion Frederick Streng, from What Is Religion? Reading Critically Analyzing Streng on Definitions of Religion God Is a Human Projection: Feuerbach Ludwig Feuerbach, from The Essence of Christianity Reading Critically Analyzing Feuerbach on Religion as Anthropomorphism Religion Is Vital Quest: Nishitani Keiji Nishitani, from Religion and Nothingness Reading Critically Analyzing Nishitani on the Religious Quest 7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions Hinduism Buddhism Daoism (Taoism) Judaism Christianity Islam Indigenous Sacred Ways Thinking Philosophically Expanding Your Religious Understanding 7.4 Can We Prove the Existence of God? The Ontological Argument Saint Anselm and Gaunilo, from The Ontological Argument Reading Critically Analyzing the Ontological Argument The Cosmological Argument Saint Thomas Aquinas, from Summa Theologica Reading Critically Analyzing the Cosmological Argument The Argument from Gradations of Perfection The Argument from Design William Paley, from Natural Theology Reading Critically Analyzing the Argument from Design The Argument from Morality Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Practical Reason Reading Critically Analyzing the Argument from Morality 7.5 The Problem of Evil J.L. Mackie, from Evil and Omnipotence Reading Critically Analyzing Mackie on the Problem of Evil John Hick, from Philosophy of Religion Reading Critically Analyzing Hick on the Problem of Evil Edward H. Madden and Peter H. Hare, A Critique of Hick's Theodicy Reading Critically Analyzing Madden and Hare's Critique of John Hick's Theodicy 7.6 Faith and Religious Experience Religious Faith as a Wager: Pascal Blaise Pascal, "A Wager" from Thoughts on Religion Reading Critically Analyzing "Pascal's Wager" Religious Beliefs Require Sufficient Evidence: Clifford W. K. Clifford, from The Ethics of Belief Reading Critically Analyzing Clifford on the Ethics of Belief Religious Belief Is Legitimate and Compelling: James William James, from The Will to Believe Reading Critically Analyzing James on the Will to Believe Subjective Knowing: The Leap of Faith Soren Kierkegaard, from The Leap of Faith and the Limits of Reason Soren Kierkegaard, from Concluding Unscientific Postscript Reading Critically Analyzing Kierkegaard on Faith and Reason 7.7 Making Connections: Reflections on the Philosophy of Religion visual summary chapter review for further reading, viewing & research Chapter 8: Are there Moral Truths? Thinking About Ethics 8.1 Your Moral Compass Ethics and Values Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Moral Values? Thinking Critically About Ethics Thinking Philosophically Making Moral Decisions 8.2 Ethical Relativism Ethical Subjectivism: Each Person Determines What Is Morally Right Thinking Philosophically How Subjective Are Your Ethics? Cultural Relativism: Each Culture Determines What Is Morally Right Ruth Benedict, from Anthropology and the Abnormal Thinking Philosophically Cultural Relativism and Your Moral Perspective Reading Critically Analyzing Benedict on Culture and Values 8.3 Ethical Absolutism: Some Moral Values Are Universal Thinking Philosophically Do You Believe in Universal Values? W. T. Stace, from The Concept of Morals Reading Critically Analyzing Stace's Critique of Ethical Relativism 8.4 Egoism as a Universal Principle Arguments for Egoism Plato, from The Republic, "The Myth of Gyges" Reading Critically Analyzing "The Myth of Gyges" Ayn Rand, from The Virtue of Selfishness Reading Critically Analyzing Rand on the Virtue of Selfishness Arguments Against Egoism James Rachels, from Egoism and Moral Skepticism Reading Critically Analyzing Rachels's Critique of Egoism 8.5 Religion and Universal Values Divine Command Theory Thinking Philosophically Religion and Your Ethical Values The Story of Abraham and Isaac, from the Bible Natural Law Theory Thinking Philosophically Do You Believe in Natural Laws? Martin Luther King Jr., from Letter from a Birmingham Jail Reading Critically Analyzing King on Universal Values 8.6 Making Connections: On Becoming an Ethical Person Robert Coles, from The Disparity Between Intellect and Character Thinking Philosophically Can Morality Be Learned in College? visual summary chapter review for further reading, viewing & research Chapter 9: What are Right Actions? Constructing an Ethical Theory 9.1 Expanding Your Knowledge of Moral Philosophy 9.2 Character: Virtue Ethics Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Moral Character? Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle's Virtue Ethics 9.3 Maxims: Duty to Moral Laws Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals Thinking Philosophically The Categorical Imperative and Your Moral Compass Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals Reading Critically Analyzing Kant on Duty and Reason 9.4 Consequences: Utilitarianism The Greatest Happiness for the Greatest Number: Bentham Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Thinking Philosophically Applying the Hedonistic Calculus Higher Pleasures Have Greater Worth: Mill John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism Reading Critically Analyzing Utilitarianism Consider the Interests of Animals: Singer Peter Singer, from Animal Liberation Reading Critically Analyzing Singer on Animal Rights 9.5 Authenticity: Existentialist Ethics "The Crowd Is Untruth": Kierkegaard Soren Kierkegaard, from On the Dedication to 'That Single Individual' Soren Kierkegaard, from The Present Age Reading Critically Analyzing Kierkegaard on Authenticity Beyond Good and Evil: Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Gay Science Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil Reading Critically Analyzing Nietzsche on Morality Authenticity and Ethical Responsibility: Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism Reading Critically Analyzing Sartre on Moral Responsibility Our Interplay with Others Defines Us: de Beauvoir Simone de Beauvoir, from Ethics of Ambiguity Reading Critically Analyzing de Beauvoir on Moral Choices Courage Is the Highest Value: Camus Camus, from The Myth of Sisyphus Reading Critically Analyzing the Myth of Sisyphus 9.6 Empathy: The Ethics of Care Nel Noddings, from Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education Reading Critically Analyzing Noddings on the Ethics of Care 9.7 Making Connections: Your Moral Compass Revisited Thinking Philosophically Constructing an Ethical Theory Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Moral Choices in a Film or Novel visual summary chapter review for further reading, viewing & research Credits Index

Product Details

  • publication date: 17/07/2013
  • ISBN13: 9781292022604
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 584
  • ID: 9781292022604
  • weight: 1242
  • ISBN10: 1292022604

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