This book offers a comprehensive survey of basic elements of nuclear dynamics at low energies and discusses similarities to mesoscopic systems. It addresses systems with finite excitations of their internal degrees of freedom, so that their collective motion exhibits features typical for transport processes in small and isolated systems. The importance of quantum aspects is examined with respect to both the microscopic damping mechanism and the nature of the transport equations. The latter must account for the fact that the collective motion is self-sustained. This implies highly nonlinear couplings between internal and collective degrees of freedom -- different to assumptions made in treatments known in the literature. A critical discussion of the use of thermal concepts is presented. The book can be considered self-contained. It presents existing models, theories and theoretical tools, both from nuclear physics and other fields, which are relevant to an understanding of the observed physical phenomena.
Professor Dr. Helmut Hofmann (retired) Department of Physics Technical University of Munich Diploma (Universitat Heidelberg, 1968) Dr. rer.nat. (Universitat Heidelberg, 1971) Dr. rer.nat. habil. (Technische Universitat Munchen, 1979) Privatdozent (Technische Universitat Munchen, 1993) apl Professor (Technische Universitat Munchen, 2001)
I BASIC ELEMENTS AND MODELS ; 1. Elementary concepts of nuclear physics ; 2. Nuclear matter as a Fermi liquid ; 3. Independent particles and quasi-particles in finite nuclei ; 4. From the shell model to the compound nucleus ; 5. Shell effects and Strutinsky renormalization ; 6. Average collective motion of small amplitude ; 7. Transport theory of nuclear collective motion ; II COMPLEX NUCLEAR SYSTEMS ; 8. The statistical model for the decay of excited nuclei ; 9. Pre-equilibrium reactions ; 10. Level densities and nuclear thermometry ; 11. Collective motion of large scale at finite thermal excitations ; 12. Dynamics of fission at finite temperature ; 13. Heavy ion collisions at low energies ; 14. Giant dipole excitations ; III MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS ; 15. Metals and quantum wires ; 16. Metal clusters ; 17. Energy transfer to a system of independent Fermions ; IV THEORETICAL TOOLS ; 18. Elements of reaction theory ; 19. Density operators and Wigner functions ; 20. The Hartree-Fock method ; 21. Transport equations for the one-body density ; 22. Nuclear thermostatics ; 23. Linear response theory ; 24. Functional integrals ; 25. Properties of Langevin- and Fokker-Planck equations ; V AUXILIARY INFORMATION ; 26. Formal means ; 27. Natural units in nuclear physics ; References