The Politics of Electoral Systems

The Politics of Electoral Systems

By: Paul Mitchell (author), Michael Gallagher (author)Paperback

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Electoral systems matter. They are a crucial link in the chain connecting the preferences of citizens to the policy choices made by governments. They are chosen by political actors and, once in existence, have political consequences for those actors. They are an important object of study for anyone interested in the political process, and in this book we subject them to systematic analysis. In addition to some comparative chapters, the book contains full accounts of the operation of electoral systems in 22 countries: France, the UK, Germany, Italy, Israel, Spain, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Ireland, Hungary, Russia, Australia, Canada, India, the USA, Japan, New Zealand, Chile, and South Africa. The book provides detailed analyses of the operation of a diverse set of electoral systems in their national context. Each chapter explains how the electoral system really works in the given country, examining the strategic incentives the system provides to voters, candidates, and parties. All country chapters have a common format and structure. Successive sections analyse: the institutional context; how each electoral system was chosen historically; how the current electoral system operates (the rules, mechanics, and ballot structure); and the political consequences of the current system (the impact on the party system, the internal life of parties, and the impact on parliament and government formation). Each country chapter then contains a final section which focuses on the politicization of electoral institutions. In recent years many countries have changed their electoral systems, either entirely or in part so there is a strong focus on the processes of electoral reform, both historically and prospectively. The book concentrates on the real world 'politics', as well as the 'political science' of electoral systems. The book will be of interest to those concerned with the practical political business of electoral reform. The book contains a wealth of evidence about the performance of various kinds of proportional representation and of non-PR systems. This will be invaluable for anyone interested in the question: 'What would be the best electoral system for my country?'

About Author

Michael Gallagher is Professor of Comparative Politics at Trinity College, University of Dublin. He has also been a visiting Professor at New York University and at City University of Hong Kong. His research has covered various aspects of elections, electoral systems and political parties in a comparative context. Paul Mitchell: Graduated with a PhD in political science from the European University Institute, in Florence, Italy. After teaching at University College Galway and Queen's University Belfast, he joined the LSE in 2000 where he teaches party competition and research methods. During 2000/01 Mitchell was a Fulbright Distinguished Scholar at Harvard University. He is currently working on an ESRC funded study of the 2003 elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly.


Foreword ; PART 1: INTRODUCTION: ELECTORAL SYSTEMS AND ELECTORAL SYSTEMS RESEARCH ; 1. Introduction to Electoral Systems ; 2. Comparative Electoral Systems Research: The Maturation of a Field and New Challenges Ahead ; 3. Why are There so many (or so few) Electoral Reforms? ; PART 2: SINGLE-MEMBER CONSTITUENCY SYSTEMS ; 4. Australia: The Alternative vote in a Compliant Political Culture ; 5. Canada: Sticking to First-past-the-Post, for the Time Being ; 6. France: Stacking the Deck ; 7. India: Two-Party Contests Within a Multi-Party System ; 8. United Kingdom: Plurality Rule Under Siege ; 9. United States of America: Perpetual Campaigning in the Absence of Competition ; PART 3: MIXED SYSTEMS ; 10. Germany: Stability and Strategy in a Mixed-Member Proportional System ; 11. Hungary: Holding Back the Tiers ; 12. Italy: A Case of Fragmented Bipolarism ; 13. Japan: Haltingly Toward a Two-Party System ; 14. New Zealand: The Consolidation of Reform? ; 15. Russia: The Authoritarian Adaptation of an Electoral System ; PART 4: CLOSED LIST SYSTEMS ; 16. Israel: The Politics of Extreme Proportionality ; 17. South Africa: One Party Dominance Despite Perfect Proportionality ; 18. Spain: Proportional Representation with Majoritarian Outcomes ; PART 5: PREFERENTIAL LIST SYSTEMS AND PR-STV ; 19. Austria: A Complex Electoral System with Subtle Effects ; 20. Belgium: Empowering Voters or Party Elites? ; 21. Chile: The Unexpected (and Expected) Consequences of Electoral Engineering ; 22. Denmark: Simplicity Embedded in Complexity (or Is it the Other Way Round?) ; 23. Finland: One Hundred Years of Quietude ; 24. The Netherlands: The Sanctity of Proportionality ; 25. Ireland: The Discreet Charm of PR-STV ; PART 6: CONCLUSION ; 26. Conclusion ; Appendix A - The Mechanics of Electoral Systems ; Appendix B - Indices of Fragmentation and Disproportionality ; Appendix C: Effective Threshold and Effective District Magnitude ; Appendix D: Values of Indices for 22 Countries at Most Recent Election ; Appendix E: Web Sites Related to Elections, Election Results, and Electoral Systems

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780199238675
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 672
  • ID: 9780199238675
  • weight: 1051
  • ISBN10: 0199238677

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