South Asia, which is home to 1.5 billion people, is a land of sharp and growing contrasts. It has attracted global attention as an emerging economic powerhouse, but is also home to the largest concentration of people living in conflict, poverty, and malnutrition. This has created 'two South Asias'-one dynamic, urbanized, and globally integrated, and the other rural, impoverished, and lagging. With a focus on the poor half billion of South Asia, this volume puts into perspective the colossal task ahead to eradicate poverty and enable inclusive growth. Examining the development challenges, successes, and failures of South Asia, it provides fresh perspectives on the links between economic geography, institutions, and globalization. The essays provide answers to why certain regions are lagging through a comparative study of spatial disparities in income, poverty, conflict, human development, and gender divides. Combining quantitative data with analytical rigour, this volume provides innovative short-term and long-term policy solutions to overcome the limits to growth and escape poverty traps.