This book proposes that reconciliation can provide a common framework or a political agreement to govern multiracial and multi ethnic societies. The study includes detailed case studies on making reconciliation between ethnic groups possible in the United States and Malaysia. The elements of reconciliation, forgiveness, repentance, justice and renewed agreement, can be lived or expressed simultaneously at various levels in society, depending on the needs of that society. Forgiveness can be expressed in political relationships as conflict transformation informed by political forgiveness. Repentance expresses itself at the political and institutional levels as cessation of wrongdoing, and in reparation, the financial and other restitution to victims for wrongs committed.
The requirements of justice include retributive justice institutions, which express the moral values of society; restorative justice institutions, which attend to healing relationships and reintegrating offenders and victims into society; procedural justice institutions that concern the perception of justice and equal treatment of persons over time; and distributive justice, which concerns the just structure of the renewed society. Democratic constitutional ism can be a process by which all participate in generating and living by political agreement and common norms. Civil society and community can develop where and when both religious and secular voices of the different members of the community can be expressed and heard.