The Sea: v. 3 Earth Beneath the Sea History (The Sea: Ideas and Observations on Progress in the Study of the Seas)

The Sea: v. 3 Earth Beneath the Sea History (The Sea: Ideas and Observations on Progress in the Study of the Seas)

By: M. N. Hill (editor)Hardback

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SECTION I. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION. CH. 1. ELEMENTARY THEORY OF SEISMIC REFRACTION AND REFLECTION MEASUREMENTS by J. I. Ewing 1. Introduction 2. Reflected waves 3. Refracted waves 4. Computation of layer velocities and thicknesses 5. Shear waves and complex refracted waves 6. Some complications and deviations from simple theory CH. 2. REFRACTION AND REFLECTION TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURE by G. G. Shor, Jr. 1. Introduction 2. Shooting techniques 3. Receiving techniques 4. Plan of operations 5. Miscellaneous variations 6. Reflection methods CH. 3. SINGLE-STILE SEISMIC REFRACTION SHOOTING by M. N. Hill 1. Introduction 2. Instrumentation 3. Operation CH. 4. CONTINUOUS REFLECTION PROFILING by J. B. Hersey 1. Introduction 2. Design 3. Operations at sea 4. Results 5. Interpretations 6. Geophysical measurements 7. Concluding remarks CH. 5.THE UNCONSOLIDATED SEDIMENTS by J. I. Ewing and J. E. Nafe 1. Introduction 2. Evidence for gradients and low-velocity sediments 3. Variable angle reflections 4. Normal-incidence reflections 5. Summary. CH. 6. THE CRUSTAL ROCKS by R. W. Raitt 1. Introduction 2. Layer 2 3. Layer 3 4. Average oceanic crust CH. 7. THE MANTLE ROCKS by J. I. Ewing 1. Introduction 2. Compressional-wave measurements 3. Shear-wave measurements 4. Summary CH. 8. EXPLORATION OF SUB-OCEANIC STRUCTURE BY THE USE OF SEISMIC SURFACE WAVES by J. Oliver and J. Dorman 1. Introduction 2. The general nature of seismic surface waves 3. Evidence from mantle surface waves 4. Evidence from crustal surface waves 5. Evidence from short-period surface waves CH. 9. GRAVITY AT SEA by J. Lamar Worzel and J. C. Harrison 1. Introduction 2. Methods and theory 3. Gravity observations and geological interpretations CH. 10. THE MAGNETIC FIELD OVER THE OCEANS by E. C. Bullard and R. G. Mason 1. Historical 2. Measurement of the magnetic field at sea 3. General features of the field 4. Reduction of magnetic observations 5. The magnetic properties of submarine rocks 6. The magnetic surveys of the north-east Pacific 7. The continental shelves 8. Seamounts and mid-ocean ridges 9. The deep trenches CH. 11. THE FLOW OF HEAT THROUGH THE FLOOR OF THE OCEAN by E. C. Bullard 1. Method 2. The temperature probe 3. The thermal properties of sediments 4. The results of heat-flow measurements 5. Future work SECTION II. TOPOGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE. CH. 12. TOPOGRAPHY OF THE DEEP-SEA FLOOR by Bruce C. Heezen and H. W. Menard 1. Introduction 2. Outline of submarine topography 3. Summary of submarine topographic forms CH. 13. CONTINENTAL SHELF AND SLOPE (CONTINENTAL MARGIN) by A. Guilcher 1. Definitions 2. Topography of the continental shelf 3. Topography of the continental slope 4. Structure and origins of the continental margins 5. Conclusion CH. 14. ABYSSAL PLAINS by Bruce C. Heezen and A. S. Laughton 1. Introduction 2. Regional description 3. Trench abyssal plains 4. Archipelagic plains 5. Abyssal gaps, interplain channels, mid-ocean canyons and deep-sea channels 6. Sediments on the abyssal plains 7. Geophysical characteristics 8. Theories of the origin of the abyssal plains CH. 15. OCEANIC ISLANDS, SEAMOUNTS, GUYOTS AND ATOLLS by H. W. Menard and H. S. Ladd 1. Introduction 2. Oceanic islands 3. Seamounts 4. Guyots 5. Atolls 6. Submerged atolls 7. Oceanic volcanoes in geological time 8. Importance of islands and seamounts CH. 16. THE MID-OCEANIC RIDGE by Bruce C. Heezen and Maurice Ewing 1. Introduction 2. North Atlantic 3. South Atlantic 4. Indian Ocean 5. Indian and South Pacific Oceans 6. Iceland and the Norwegian Sea 7. Arctic Basin 8. Crustal structure 9. Origin CH. 17. TRENCHES by B. L. Fisher and H. H. Hess 1. Previous work 2. Topography of trenches 3. Structure of trenches CH. 15. MICROTOPOGRAPHY by A. S. Laughton 1. Introduction 2. Classification of microtopographic features CH. 19. UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY by H. E. Edgerton 1. Introduction 2. Camera details 3. Cables and winches for cameras CH. 20. SUBMARINE CANYONS by F. P. Shepard 1. Introduction 2. Classification of submarine valleys 3. Canyon descriptions 4. East coast U.S. (New England type) canyons 5. Trough-shaped valleys 6. Delta foreset-slope gullies 7. Shallow straight-walled valleys of submarine escarpments 8. Origin of submarine canyons 9. Subaerial erosion 10. Pleistocene canyon cutting by turbidity currents SECTION III. SEDIMENTATION. CH. 21.BEACH AND NEARSHORE PROCESSES PART I. MECHANICS OF MARINE SEDIMENTATION by R. A. Bagnold 1. Definition, origin and relevant physical properties 2. Transport during fall through the sea 3. Transport of sediment over the sea bed 4. Transport rate and fluid "power" 5. Auto-suspension of sediment: turbidity currents, etc. 6. Wave drift 7. Threshold of bed disturbance by fluid action. PART II. LITTORAL PROCESSES by D. L. Inman and R. A. Bagnold 8. Introduction 9. Littoral profile: two-dimensional ease 10. Migration of sand grains by wave action 11. Littoral processes: three-dimensional case 12. Discussion. CH. 22. SHALLOW-WATER CARBONATE SEDIMENTS by B. N. Ginsburg, B. Michael Lloyd, K. W. Stockman and J. S. McCallum 1. Introduction 2. Types of skeletal particles 3. Skeletal particles in sediments 4. Distribution of skeletal particles 5. Discussion of the distribution of skeletal particles 6. Non-skeletal particles 7. Distribution of non-skeletal particles CH. 23. BASIN SEDIMENTATION AND DIAGENESIS by I. B. Kaplan and S. C. Rittenberg 1. Introduction 2. Physical aspects of sedimentation 3. Diagenesis in sediments 4. Isotopic studies related to biological processes in sediments 5. Special problems CH. 24. ESTUARIES, DELTAS, SHELF, SLOPE by A. Guilcher 1. Estuaries, tidal marshes and flats, and deltas 2. Continental shelf 3. Continental slope CH. 25. PELAGIC SEDIMENTS by G. Arrhenius 1. Concept of pelagic sedimentation 2. Composition 3. Productivity control of pelagic sedimentation 4. Physical stratification 5. Topographic and tectonic control of sedimentation CH. 26. CLAY-MINERAL DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN by J. J. Griffin and E. D. Goldberg 1. Introduction 2. The clay minerals 3. Surface distribution of clay minerals 4. Vertical distribution 5. Summary CH. 27. TURBIDITY CURRENTS by Bruce C. Heezen 1. Early views 2. Full-scale experiment 3. Alternative explanations 4. Physiographic evidence 5. Sediments. 6. Requirements of turbidity currents 7. Tectonic significance of turbidity currents 8. Biological significance of turbidity currents 9. Other processes of deep-sea erosion and transportation 10. Conclusion CH. 28. ORGANIC TRANSPORTATION OF MARINE SEDIMENTS by K. G. Emery 1. Introduction 2. Kelp 3. Driftwood 4. Sea mammals 5. Fishes 6. Birds 7. Invertebrates 8. Comparison with inorganic transporting agents 9. Criteria for recognition of rafting agent CH. 29. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE SEDIMENTS by J. E. Nafe and C. L. Drake I. Introduction 2. Relationships among observables 3. Methods of measurement 4. Summary of results 5. Conclusions CH. 30. AGE DETERMINATION IN SEDIMENTS BY NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY by F. F. Koczy 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical considerations 3. Geochemical considerations 4. Practical methods of age determination 5. Rate of sedimentation CH. 31. CROSS-CORRELATION OF DEEP-SEA SEDIMENT CORES AND DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE RATES OF SEDIMENTATION BY MICRO- PALEONTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES by D. B. Ericson 1. Introduction 2. Methods of correlation 3. Time-equivalence of the faunal zones 4. Some examples HISTORY CH. 32. THE ORIGIN OF LIFE by Stanley L. Miller 1. Early considerations of the problem 2. The primitive atmosphere 3. The synthesis of organic compounds 4. The origin of life 5. Evolution of early organisms 6. Life on other planets CH. 33. THE PRESERVED RECORD: PALEONTOLOGY OF PELAGIC SEDIMENTS by W. R. Riedel 1. Introduction 2. Fossils of deep-ocean basins versus those of shallow waters 3. Objectives of deep-sea paleontology 4. Shelled pelagic micro-organisms and their distribution 5. Interpretation of Quaternary microfossil assemblages 6. Mieropaleontological determination of ages 7. Pre-Quaternary paleoceanography CH. 34. THE PLEISTOCENE RECORD by C. Emiliani and R. F. Flint 1. Introduction 2. Continental stratigraphy 3. Marine stratigraphy 4. Summary AUTHOR INDEX SUBJECT INDEX

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  • ISBN13: 9780674017306
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 982
  • ID: 9780674017306
  • weight: 1816
  • ISBN10: 0674017307

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