The Seafood Industry: Species, Products, Processing, and Safety (2nd Edition)

The Seafood Industry: Species, Products, Processing, and Safety (2nd Edition)

By: George J. Flick (editor), Linda Ankenman Granata (editor), Roy E. Martin (editor)Hardback

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Description

The Seafood Industry: Species, Products, Processing, and Safety, Second Edition is a completely updated and contemporary revision of Flick and Martin s classic publication, The Seafood Industry. Covering all aspects of the commercial fish and shellfish industries from harvest through consumption the book thoroughly describes the commercial fishery of the western hemisphere. The international audience will also find the coverage accessible because, although species and regulations may differ, the techniques described are similar worldwide,. The second edition contains a significant expansion of the material included in the first edition. Examples include: high pressure processing; inclusion of additional major crustacean species of commerce; fishery centers and development programs; handling methods on fishing vessels; and new chapters on Toxins, Allergies, and Sensitivities; Composition and Quality; and Risk Management and HACCP; and Processing Fin Fish. The Seafood Industry: Species, Products, Processing, and Safety, comprehensive in scope and current with today s issues, will prove to be a great asset to any industry professional or seafood technologist working in the field.

About Author

Linda Ankenman Granata is a Research Associate at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia. George J. Flick, Jr. is University Distinguished Professor at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia. Roy E. Martin was formerly Senior Vice President (Science and Technology) at the National Fisheries Institute. He is currently a Seafood Industry Consultant based in Spring Hill, Florida.

Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments xiii Contributors xv 1 A History of the Seafood Industry 1 Roy E. Martin The fish curing industry 1 Fish canning 2 Canning salmon 3 The shrimp fishery 3 Canning oysters, clams, and crabs 5 The fish canning industry 6 The haddock fishery 8 Early Pacific fisheries 9 The menhaden fishery 10 The whaling industry 11 An overview of our heritage 12 Further reading 12 2 Harvesting Techniques 14 George J. Flick, Jr. Classification of harvesting techniques 14 Nets 15 Trap and gear pot 20 Hook-and-line fishing 22 Shellfish dredging and scooping gear 24 Hand picking 25 Fishing optimization 25 Miscellaneous and experimental gear 25 Acknowledgment 26 Further reading 26 3 Groundfish 27 George J. Flick, Jr., and Laura S. Douglas Introduction 27 Historical perspective 28 East Coast fishing industry: a historical perspective 28 West Coast fishing industry: a historical perspective 30 Species 32 East Coast 32 West Coast 41 Acknowledgments 44 References 45 Webliography 45 4 Pelagic Fish 48 Laura S. Douglas Introduction 48 Species 49 Herrings, sardines, and anchovies 49 Tunas, bonitos, and billfishes 50 Miscellaneous pelagic fishes 52 Physical adaptation 53 Musculature 54 Preservation 54 Maine sardines 55 Brisling and sild (formerly Norway sardines) 55 Portuguese sardines 56 Tuna 56 Mackerel 56 Anchovies, Mediterranean style 57 Menhaden 57 Nutritional value 57 Labeling 58 Sardines and sardine-like products 58 Anchovies 59 Tunas 59 Quality factors 59 Brisling and sild (Norway sardines) 59 Portuguese sardines 59 Tunas 60 Mackerels 60 Anchovies, Mediterranean style 60 Acknowledgments 61 References 61 Webliography 61 5 Major Cultured Species 63 Lori S. Marsh Importance of aquaculture 63 Production environments and systems 63 Pond systems 64 Enclosure and cage systems 64 Flow-through systems 65 Recirculating aquaculture systems 65 Common aquacultured species 65 Carps 66 Oysters 67 Clams, cockles, and arkshells 67 Shrimps and prawns 68 Tilapias 68 Salmons and trouts 69 Conclusions 70 References 70 Webliography 70 6 Shellfish Mollusks 71 Robin Downey, Lori Marsh, and George J. Flick, Jr. Mollusk farms and fisheries 71 Natural history 71 Feeding 72 The mollusk and public health 72 Conservation regulations 72 West Coast 73 Clam culture operations 73 Geoduck (giant clam) culture operations 73 Mussel culture operations 74 Oyster culture operations 74 Scallop culture operations 75 Abalone 75 Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 76 Surf clams 76 Ocean quahog 77 Hard clam 78 Soft shell clam 79 Scallops 80 Oysters 80 Blue mussel 81 Acknowledgment 81 References 81 Webliography 82 7 Shellfish Crustaceans 83 Michael J. Oesterling Crabs 84 Blue crab 85 King crab 86 Cancer crabs 88 Shrimp 89 Penaeid shrimp 90 Pandalid shrimp 91 Lobster 92 Spiny lobsters 92 American lobster 93 Further reading 94 8 Underutilized (Latent) Fishery Species 95 Michael Jahncke and Daniel Kauffman History of research programs on underutilized (latent) fishery species 95 Fishery development foundations 96 Saltenstall-Kennedy fishery development funds and sea grant research programs on underutilized (latent) species 97 Examples of past and current underutilized (latent) species development efforts 97 Dogfish 97 Pacific sardine 98 Atlantic red crab 99 Spin-offs from underutilized (latent) species research 99 Nongovernmental organization and consumer pressure for sustainable management 100 Future trends 101 Acknowledgments 101 References 101 Webilography 103 9 Processing Finfish 105 Lori Marsh and George J. Flick, Jr. Filleting 105 Mince 106 Raw materials and sources 106 Separation processes 106 Washing 110 Mince stabilization 110 Mince products 112 Conclusions 114 Batters and breading 114 Mesh 115 Browning rate 115 Moisture and oil absorption 115 Battered and breaded seafoods 115 Quality assurance of battered and breaded seafood products 116 Acknowledgments 117 References 117 Webliography 117 10 Surimi and Fish Protein Isolate 118 Jae W. Park Introduction 118 Manufacturing of surimi 119 Refining 121 Freezing, metal detection, and frozen storage 121 Factors affecting surimi quality 122 Surimi gel preparation and measurement 122 Fish protein isolate 123 What is fish protein isolate? 123 Superior gelling properties of FPI 124 Utilization of surimi and fish protein isolate 124 References 126 11 Waste (By-Product) Utilization 128 Lori Marsh and Peter J. Bechtel Human consumption 129 Mince 129 Roe 130 Fish heads 130 Pharmaceutical nutraceuticals and other products 130 Aquacultural, agricultural, and bulk food uses 131 Fish hydrolysates 131 Fertilizer and compost 131 Nonnutritional uses 132 Biodiesel and fuel 132 Chitin and chitosan 132 Carotenoid pigments 133 Leather and gelatin 133 References 133 12 Processing Mollusks 136 George J. Flick, Jr. Processing for the live market 136 Processing for the fresh market 137 Bivalves 137 Gastropods 138 Further processing 139 Batter and breading operations 139 Freezing 139 Canning 140 Pickled mollusks 142 High pressure processing 142 Irradiation and electron beam 145 Steam tunnel 145 Heat shock 147 Postharvest processes 147 Postharvest processing validation/verification guidance for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus 148 Flavoring agents from processing effluents 148 Acknowledgment 149 References 149 Further reading 149 13 Processing Crustaceans 151 Lori S. Marsh Crabs 151 Swimming or blue crabs 151 Further processing 153 King crab 153 Dungeness crab 154 Stone crab 154 Jonah crab and rock crab 154 Lobster 155 Shrimp 155 Paste shrimp 155 Cold-water shrimp 156 Warm-water shrimp 156 Shrimp processing on board the capture vessel 156 Crawfish 158 Harvesting crawfish 158 Grading 158 Cooking 158 Packaging 159 Other freshwater crawfish products 159 Acknowledgment 159 References 159 Webliography 160 14 Freshwater Fish 161 Denise Skonberg and Thomas E. Rippen Current status 161 Other fisheries 162 Markets/processing 163 Composition and quality 163 Shelf life 163 Red versus white muscle 163 Nutrient composition 164 Consumer preference 164 Off-flavors 165 Parasites 165 Contaminants 165 Selected species 166 Whitefish 166 Lake whitefish 166 Chubs (lake herring) 166 Other whitefish 166 Yellow perch 167 Walleye 167 Lake trout 168 Smelt 168 Catfish 168 Other species 169 Acknowledgments 170 Further reading 170 Webliography 171 15 Nutrition and Preparation 172 Doris T. Hicks Introduction 172 Make smart choices from every food group 173 Nutrient intake recommendations 173 Major nutrients 173 Protein 173 Fat 174 Water 175 Minerals 175 Trace minerals 177 Vitamins 178 Water-soluble vitamins 179 Nutrition labeling for seafood 180 What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish 181 Allergens 182 Buying seafood 182 Whole fish 182 Fish fillets or steaks 182 Shellfish 183 Label-dated seafood 183 Mail-order seafood 183 Handling and storing fresh seafood 183 Buying frozen seafood 184 Preparation 186 Keeping it clean 186 Cooking: general rules 186 Serving seafood 190 Acknowledgment 191 Further reading 191 Webliography 192 16 Species Identification of Seafood 193 LeeAnn Applewhite, Rosalee Rasmussen, and Michael Morrissey Significance of problem 194 Types of species substitution 194 Background 195 Comparison of protein- and DNA-based methods 196 DNA-based methods 196 DNA extraction 196 DNA amplification 197 Post-PCR analysis methods 201 Single-stranded conformational polymorphism 205 General summary of DNA-based methods 207 Current regulatory activity 207 Current commercial applications 209 Online resources 209 Challenges and emerging trends 210 DNA chips 211 Quantitative PCR 211 Electrochemical DNA sensors 212 Conclusions 212 References 212 Further reading 218 Webliography 218 17 Packaging 220 Joseph E. Marcy Why package? 221 Containing and protecting the product 221 Product protection 221 Communication 223 Convenience 224 Package selection 225 Consumer/retail packaging 225 Bulk packaging techniques 227 Handling characteristics of packaging materials 228 Acknowledgment 229 References 229 Further reading 229 18 Freezing 230 Donald E. Kramer, Lyn D. Peters, and Edward Kolbe Factors affecting frozen shelf life 230 Composition 231 Condition of the fish 232 Season of year 233 Rigor mortis 233 Freezing rate 234 Storage temperature 237 Packaging 238 Thawing 244 Temperature indicators 245 Acknowledgment 246 References 246 Further reading 247 19 Handling of Fresh Fish 249 Thomas E. Rippen and Denise Skonberg Review of fish spoilage 249 Bacteria 249 Developing a scombrotoxin (histamine) control plan 250 Temperature effect 255 Ice advantages and uses 255 Ice in retail display cases 257 Other cooling systems 257 Bruises and cuts 257 Bacterial contamination 258 Washing and sanitizing 259 Further reading 259 20 Shellfish Biological Safety 261 George J. Flick, Jr., and Linda Ankenman Granata Shrimp 261 Shrimp production 262 Raw and processed shrimp 263 Ice storage of shrimp 264 Oysters 264 Postprocessing treatments of oysters 268 Mussels 269 Hepatitis A 269 Toxins 270 Parasites 271 Conclusions 272 References 272 21 Allergens, Decomposition, and Toxins 278 Sherwood Hall Allergens 279 Decomposition 279 Biogenic amines 280 Seafood toxins 281 Some useful resources 282 Shellfish toxins and primary accumulation 282 Toxins that can be accumulated from plankton but are of uncertain risk to consumers 284 Palytoxins and Ostreopsis toxins 285 Pufferfish, intrinsic toxicity, and toxicity of uncertain origin 285 Distribution 286 Concepts and strategies for managing seafood toxins 286 Sampling, sample preparation, and the significance of a sample 289 Detection methods for toxicity monitoring 289 Elimination 292 History 292 Summary 293 References 293 Further reading 296 22 Cleaning and Sanitation 297 Nina Gritzai Parkinson Cleaning 298 Surfaces to be cleaned 298 Nonfood-contact surfaces 298 Type of soil 298 Water properties 299 Temperature 299 Equipment and resources 300 Factors to consider when selecting the cleaning compound 300 Sanitizing 301 Chemical factors 302 Biological factors 303 Sanitizers 303 Iodine compounds 304 Quaternary ammonium compounds 304 Acid-anionic surfactants 305 Fatty acid sanitizers 305 Ozone 305 Peroxyacetic acid or peracetic acid solutions 305 Writing sanitation standard operating procedures 305 Acknowledgments 306 Further reading 306 Webliography 307 23 Implementing the Seafood HACCP Regulation 308 Pamela D. Tom Overview of the seafood HACCP regulation and principles 308 HACCP training 311 Internet HACCP resources 312 Hazards guide 313 Generic HACCP plans and forms 314 Encore manual 314 Discussion list 315 HACCP inspection 315 Monitoring sanitation control procedures 316 Webliography 316 24 Aquaculture 318 Brian G. Bosworth History of aquaculture 318 Types of aquaculture 319 Advantages and disadvantages of aquaculture 319 Basic requirements of aquaculture 320 Aquaculture production 321 Worldwide 321 United States 322 Culture systems and techniques 322 Catfish 322 Salmon and trout 323 Carp 324 Shrimp 324 Crawfish 324 Oysters 325 Aquatic plants and algae 325 Current issues related to aquaculture production 325 Future of aquaculture 326 Acknowledgment 326 References 326 25 Waste Treatment 327 Gregory D. Boardman Seafood wastewater 327 Pollution parameters 328 Wastewater guidelines 330 Direct discharge 331 Municipal discharge 333 Waste treatment 334 In-plant controls 334 Reuse and recycling 336 Segregation of waters 337 End-of-pipe treatment 337 Residuals management 344 Conclusions 345 Acknowledgment 346 References 346 Further reading 347 26 Fish Meal and Oil 348 Anthony P. Bimbo Introduction 348 Production of fish meal 353 Raw material 353 Harvesting 354 Unloading 354 Cooking 355 Pressing 356 Drying 356 Antioxidant addition 357 Storage and shipping 359 Production of crude fish oil 359 Solids removal 360 Oil water separation 360 Polishing or oil purification 360 Production of stickwater concentrate 360 Evaporation 360 Other production methods 361 Dry rendering 361 Various silage products 361 Hydrolyzates 362 Pollution control 362 Water effluent 363 Gaseous effluent 363 Markets 364 Fish meal 364 Crude fish oil 364 Global aquaculture market 368 References 371 Further reading 373 Webliography 373 27 Regulations 374 Roy E. Martin Food and Drug Administration 374 Common or usual names 375 Imitations 376 Poisonous and deleterious substances 378 Good manufacturing practices 379 Revision of umbrella GMPs 380 Emergency permit control 380 Labeling 380 Nutrient content descriptors 383 Other definitions 384 Fresh 385 Health claims 385 Ingredient labeling 386 Advertising 386 Enforcement 386 Mandatory seafood inspection 387 Imports 389 Bioterrorism 390 Exports 391 Fines 391 National Marine Fisheries Service 391 Inspections 392 Lacey Act 393 Penalties 394 Questions and answers concerning the Lacey Act 395 US Customs 395 Bulk containers 395 Other legislation 396 Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act 396 Optimum yield 396 Anadromous Fish Conservation Act 398 State regulations 400 Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference 401 Federal Trade Commission 401 False or misleading 401 Substantiation 401 Appendix 402 NMFS Inspection Services 402 Technical Assistance and Sanitary-Inspected Fish Establishment Services 402 Packed Under Federal Inspection Service 402 Product Grading Service 402 Lot Inspection Service 402 Further reading 403 28 Smoked, Cured, and Dried Fish 404 George J. Flick, Jr., and David D. Kuhn Economic importance 405 Principles of smoking, drying, and curing 405 Smoked fish processing 406 Purchasing and receiving 407 Raw material storage 407 Raw material preparation 408 Salting 409 Drying fish 413 Smoking 415 Cooling 419 Spoilage and contamination of smoked fish 420 Effect of smoking on composition 421 Dried salted fish 422 Dried fish 422 Pickled fish 423 Government regulations 423 Personnel 423 Quality control 425 Acknowledgment 425 References 425 Further reading 426 29 Transportation, Distribution, Warehousing, and Food Security 427 Roy E. Martin Transportation 427 Delivery equipment design and construction 428 Preloading controls 428 Loading controls 429 Unloading controls 429 Special concerns: Railcars 430 Special concerns: Air shipping 432 Fish and seafood acceptance by air carriers 435 Factors involved in packaging design 436 Transportation from packing house to airport 437 Air waybill 437 Air waybill requirements for dry ice 437 Distributors that take ownership of product 438 Organization and programs 438 Checkpoints and additional guides 438 Warehousing 440 Buildings and grounds 440 Fixtures and equipment 441 Sanitary facilities 441 Sanitary operations 442 Procedures and controls 443 Personnel 444 Temperature control and handling practices 445 Food security guidelines 447 Supervision 448 Recall strategy 448 Evaluation program 448 Personnel 448 Facility 450 Operations 451 Security of water and utilities 452 Security of ventilation system (where applicable) 452 Mail/packages 453 Access to computer systems 453 Further reading 453 Index 455

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780813802589
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 468
  • ID: 9780813802589
  • weight: 1226
  • ISBN10: 081380258X
  • edition: 2nd Edition

Delivery Information

  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
  • Store Delivery: Yes

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