A major contribution to one of the most fascinating debates about the Ancient World, this volume provides a significant insight into the changes that occurred in the late Roman period and which shaped the emergence of early medieval Europe. The volume will be of importance to historians and archaeologists interested in the changes in the character of urbanism, military organization and the rural landscape which separate the Roman Empire from Late Antiquity (1st to early 7th centuries AD). Some papers focus on the lower Danube, others provide comparative studies which range from northern Italy and Pannonia to Greece, western Asia Minor and as far east as the Euphrates. These papers compare the results of different international research teams but also contrast approaches and methodology in order to assess the extent to which these differences might account for apparently contradictory conclusions. The volume also demonstrates the uses and pitfalls encountered in attempts to combine evidence provided by ancient historians and archaeologists - a theme which has wider implications beyond this volume.