In the concluding stages of the eleventh-century Eucharistic Controversy, which turned on whether, and how, sacramental consecration changed the nature of bread and wine at the altar, Alberic of Monte Cassino composed a small but important treatise. Alberic was the most renowned teacher of rhetoric in his time, and his treatise, buttressed by appeal to the authority of the Church Fathers, was said by contemporaries to have "utterly destroyed" the argument of his opponent, Berengar of Tours, that the bread and wine survived its consecration. Modern scholars had long believed Alberic's treatise to be lost. This book demonstrates that this crucial document, far from being lost, is an existing identifiable text. By showing conclusively that this work was written by Alberic, Radding and Newton transform our understanding not only of the particulars of the controversy and papal politics but also of the intellectual process by which theological doctrines took shape in mediaeval Church councils. The book includes the full Latin text and the first translation of Alberic's treatise.
Charles M. Radding is a professor of history at Michigan State University. Francis Newton is a professor of classics at Duke University.
PrefaceList of Abbreviations1. Berengar of Tours and the Eucharistic Controversy Introduction The Carolingian Background and the Eleventh-Century Debate Berengar's Theology of the Eucharist Berengar's Early Critics The Early Councils The Aftermath of the Council of 1059: Lanfranc and Guitmund The Movement Toward Rome2. Alberdeen Libellus Against Berengar of Tours The Manuscript The Rubric and Morin's Attribution to Berengar of Venosa The Treatise and It's Author Alberic of Monte Cassino and His "Lost" Treatise3. Style and Content of the Libellus Alberic's Literary Work The Literary Style of the Aberdeen Libellus The Content of the Libellus Conclusion4. Berengar of Tours and the Roman Councils of 1078 and 1079 The Sources The Council of All Saints, 1078 Alberic and Berengar Berengar and Alberic at the Lenten Council, 1079 Brief Epilogue: Berengar RemembersConclusionThe Text and Translation of the LibellusAppendix: The Dossier of Unconnected Sententiae Following the Libellus in the Aberdeen ManuscriptBibliographyIndex