In this impressive second edition of Theory of Knowledge, Keith Lehrer introduces students to the major traditional and contemporary accounts of knowing. Beginning with the traditional definition of knowledge as justified true belief, Lehrer explores the truth, belief, and justification conditions on the way to a thorough examination of foundation theories of knowledge,the work of Platinga, externalism and naturalized epistemologies, internalism and modern coherence theories, contextualism, and recent reliabilist and causal theories. Lehrer gives all views careful examination and concludes that external factors must be matched by appropriate internal factors to yield knowledge. This match of internal and external factors follows from Lehrer's new coherence theory of undefeated justification. In addition to doing justice to the living epistemological traditions, the text smoothly integrates several new lines that will interest scholars. Also, a feature of special interest is Lehrer's concept of a justification game.This second edition of Theory of Knowledge is a thoroughly revised and updated version that contains several completely new chapters. Written by a well-known scholar and contributor to modern epistemology, this text is distinguished by clarity of structure, accessible writing, and an elegant mix of traditional material, contemporary ideas, and well-motivated innovation.
Keith Lehrer is Regents Professor of Philosophy at the University of Arizona.
* Preface to First Edition * Preface to Second Edition * 1. The Analysis of Knowledge * What Is Knowledge? * Analysis * The Form and Objectives of an Analysis of Knowledge * The Analysis of Knowledge * Theories of Justification * A Counterexample * Justification Without Falsity: A Fourth Condition * A Final Analysis of Knowledge * Introduction to the Literature * 2. Truth and Acceptance * Truth * Acceptance and Knowledge * The Consistency of Knowledge and Belief * Borderline Cases of Knowledge * Memory Without Knowledge * Introduction to the Literature * 3. The Foundation Theory: Infallible Foundationalism * Infallible Versus Fallible Foundationalism * Fallible Foundations * The Foundation Theory in General * The Foundation As a Guarantee of Truth * Incorrigible Foundations * Fallibility and Inference: Summary of the Argument * Nomological Infallibility * Meaning and Belief * The Opacity of Incorrigibility * Justification As a Logical Guarantee of Truth for Nonbasic Beliefs * Phenomenalism * Objections to Phenomenalism * Summary * Introduction to the Literature * 4. Fallible Foundations * Perceptual Belief and Independent Information * Justification and Innocent Belief * Semantics and Justification * Self-Justification and Necessary Truth * Semantic Foundationalism: A Counterexample * Contingent Self-Justification * Probability and Justification: Fallibilistic Foundationalism * Three Concepts of Probability * Probability, Truth, and Basic Belief * Introduction to the Literature * 5. The Explanatory Coherence Theory * The Regress or the Circle * The Traditional Answer: Coherence As Implication * Coherence As Explanation * On the Justification of What Is Explained * Explanatory Coherence and Justification: An Analysis * Objections and Replies to Coherence As Explanation * Self-Explanatory Beliefs * Simplicity and Conservation * Summary * Introduction to the Literature * 6. Internal Coherence and Personal Justification * Acceptance and Belief Reconsidered * Justification and Reasonable Acceptance * Justification, Reasonableness, and Coherence * Suggestion of a Unified Theory of Knowledge * Objection Defined * The Justification Game: Replying to a Critic * Answering Objections * The Justification Game and the Definition of Personal Justification * The Virtuous Loop of Reason * The Lottery Paradox * The Advantages of Truth * Introduction to the Literature * 7. Coherence, Truth, and Undefeated Justification * The Uncharitable Possibility of Error * Undefeated Justification * A Solution: Defeat and the Ultra Justification Game * Truth Connection and the Isolation Objection * Perception, Memory, and Introspection * Knowledge of the Eliminated * A Definition of Undefeated Justification * Knowledge Reduced to Undefeated Justification * Determining Justification * Introduction to the Literature * 8. Externalism and the Truth Connection * Naturalism * The Advantages of Externalism * The Naturalistic Relation * Objections to Externalism: Information Without Knowledge and the Opacity Objection * Externalism and Justification * Undefeated Justification and Reliabilism * Trustworthiness and Reliability in the Justification Game * Conversion to Irrefutable Justification * Causation and Justification: The Basing Relation * Acceptance, Belief, and Justification * Reliability and the Justification Game * Trustworthiness and Prejudice: An Objection * Externalism, Foundationalism, and Coherence: An Ecumenical Reconsideration * Introduction to the Literature * 9. Skepticism, Virtue, and Context * Skepticism and Agnoiology * Conception and the Chance of Error * An Answer to Skepticism: Fallibility, Not Ignorance * Intellectual Virtue and Trustworthiness * The Duplication Argument: An Objection * The Merits of Skepticism * Skepticism and Closure: An Externalist Caveat * The Trilemma of Knowledge and Skepticism * Contextualism: Another Solution * Why not Closure? * Contextualism and Trustworthiness * The Insufficiency of Reliability and the Role of Explanation * Answering the Skeptic: A Concluding Discourse * Acceptance and Self-Trust: A Reply to the Skeptic * The Virtuous Loop Maximizes Explanation * Summary * Introduction to the Literature * Bibliography * Index