Thermal Spraying for Power Generation Components

Thermal Spraying for Power Generation Components

By: Stephan Siegmann (author), Vladimir Belashchenko (author), Marian Dratwinski (author), Alexander Zagorski (author), Klaus Erich Schneider (author)Hardback

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Description

Thousands of patents address new coating types, new developments, new chemical compositions. However, sometimes coatings is still considered as an "art". This book now deals with questions that are essential for a good performance of this "art": Is there a given process stability? Is there an inherent process capability for a given specification which cannot be improved? What is the right preventive maintenance strategy? Is there a chance to end up with coating process capabilities in the order of other manufacturing processes? This book is not a pure scientific book. It is of most value for the engineer involved in design, processing and application of thermally spayed coatings: To understand the capability and limitations of thermal spraying, to understand deposition efficiency (waste of powder) and the importance of maintenance and spare parts for quick change over of worn equipment, to use offline programming and real equipment in an optimum mix to end up with stable processes in production after shortest development time and in the end to achieve the final target in production: process stability at minimum total cost.

About Author

Klaus E. Schneider received a degree in Physics and Materials Science and a PhD in Materials Science and Technology from the University of Erlangen, Germany. He has three decades of experience in manufacturing and materials technology in power and turbine engineering, mechanical engineering. During his professional carreer at BBC, ABB, ALSTOM Mannheim, Germany, and Baden, Switzerland (1974-2004), he worked in several leading positions in materials, supply management and manufacturing. He was responsible for national and international R&D programmes and for erecting new manufacturing facilities. Since 2004 he is active as a consultant for materials and manufacturing technology. Vladimir Belashchenko has a PhD in Physics and Chemistry of Plasma Technology and a ScD in Materials Science. He has over 30 years of experience in research, development and implementation of thermal spray equipment, materials and technologies. In 1992, he obtained the ASM International Award, in 2004 the R&D 100 Award. Marian Dratwinski is a process development engineer with a very wide range of technical knowledge and experiences. In his current post, he is responsible for Coating Applications Development at Sulzer Metco AG in Switzerland. Stephan Siegmann received his degree in Physics from the University of Basel, Switzerland. After completing the PhD in the field of Thermal Spraying, he was working as Vice Manager Research at MGC Plasma Company at Muttenz, Switzerland, in the field of waste treatment by thermal plasma at 1.2 MW. In the year 1994 he changed back to his former fi eld of Thermal Spraying and built up a position at the Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), where he is now responsible for all Thermal Spray activities. Alexander Zagorski received his degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Novosibirsk State Technical University and his PhD in Hydromechanics and Plasma from the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics in Novosibirsk, Russia. After having worked in Research and Development for eighteen years, he is now the Expert Engineer at the ALSTOM Customer Service Development in Switzerland.

Contents

Preface. The Authors of this Book. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Requirements for Materials and Coatings in Powerplants. 1.2 Examples of Coatings in Gas Turbines. 1.3 Defi nition of Thermal Spraying (THSP). 1.4 Thermal-Spraying Systems. 1.5 Coatings for Power-Generation Components. 1.6 The Complete Manufacturing and Coating Process. 1.7 Coating-Process Development. 1.8 Tasks for "Target" Readers. 2 Practical Experience Today. 2.1 Coating Processes. 2.2 Basics of Thermal Spraying. 2.3 Feedstock. 2.3.1 Wire. 2.3.2 Powder. 2.3.2.1 Powder Types. 2.3.2.2 Powder-Production Processes and Morphologies. 2.3.2.3 Powder Characterization. 2.3.2.4 Powders for Power-Generation Applications. 2.4 Thermal-Spraying Equipment. 2.4.1 Example of a Low-Pressure Plasma-Coating System. 2.4.2 Flame and Arc Spray Torches. 2.4.3 HVOF Process. 2.4.3.1 Comparison of HVOF Fuels. 2.4.3.2 A Brief Overview of the Major Existing HVOF Systems. 2.4.3.3 Possible Improvements of HVOF Systems. 2.4.4 Plasma Process. 2.4.4.1 A Brief Overview of Plasma Torches. 2.4.4.2 Possible Improvements of Plasma Systems. 2.5 Work Flow and Important Coating Hardware. 2.5.1 Powder Preparation and Powder-Delivery System. 2.5.1.1 Powder Preparation. 2.5.1.2 Powder Delivery and Injection System. 2.5.1.3 Powder Injection and Plasma/Hot Gas Jet. 2.5.1.4 Injector Plugging and "Spitting". 2.5.1.5 Powder Buildup at the Front Nozzle Wall. 2.5.2 Cooling System. 2.5.3 Power-Supply System. 2.5.4 Gas Supply and Distribution System. 2.5.5 Manipulation Systems. 2.5.6 Fixtures and Masking. 2.6 Examples of Coated Power-Generation Components. 2.7 Production Experience. 2.7.1 Surface Preparation. 2.7.1.1 Internal Plasma and Transferred Arc. 2.7.2 Process and Systems. 2.7.2.1 The Programming of the Coating Process. 2.7.3 Finishing. 2.7.4 Repair of Turbine Parts. 2.7.4.1 Coating Removal, Stripping. 2.7.4.2 Restoration of the Base Materials. 2.7.4.3 Refurbishing, Recoating. 2.8 Commercial. 2.8.1 General. 2.8.2 Surface Preparation. 2.8.3 Coating Equipment. 2.8.4 Finishing. 3 Quality and Process Capability. 3.1 Quality Assurance. 3.2 Sources of Process Variations. 3.2.1 Special Causes of Coating-Process Variation. 3.2.2 Stochastic Nature of a Spray Process. 3.2.2.1 Arc and Jet Pulsations. 3.2.2.2 Powder-Size Distribution. 3.2.2.3 Powder Injection. 3.2.2.4 Powder Shape. 3.2.2.5 Particle Bonding. 3.2.2.6 Gun and Component Motion and Positioning. 3.2.3 Drifting. 3.2.4 Stability of the Quality Control. 3.3 Process Capability and Stable Process. 3.3.1 Defi nition of Process Capability. 3.3.2 Defi nition of a Stable Coating Process. 3.3.3 Operational Window. 3.3.4 What Process Capability is Required? 3.3.5 Additional Factors that Affect the Process Capability. 3.3.6 Case Study: Achievable Process Capability. 3.3.6.1 Part Complexity. 3.3.6.2 Mutual Position of the Gun and Component Fixtures. 3.3.6.3 Powder Quality. 3.3.6.4 Torch Pulsations and Drifting. 3.3.6.5 Instability of the Quality-Control Process. 3.3.6.6 Surface Preparation and the Part Temperature. 3.3.6.7 Conditions of the Powder-Injection System. 3.3.6.8 Process Capability. 3.4 Maintenance. 4 Theory and Physical Trends. 4.1 Coating Formation from Separate Particles: Particle Impact, Spreading and Bonding. 4.2 Physics of Plasma Torches. 4.2.1 Plasma Properties. 4.2.2 Gas Dynamics of Plasma Torch. 4.2.3 Energy Balance of the Plasma Gun. 4.2.4 Major Trends. 4.2.4.1 Variation of the Gun Power; the Gas Flow Rates and Composition Unchanged. 4.2.4.2 Variation of the Plasma Composition at the Same Specifi c Plasma Enthalpy. 4.2.4.3 Variation of the Plasma Flow Rate at Unchanged Gun Power and Gas Composition. 4.2.4.4 Effect of Nozzle Diameter. 4.2.5 Plasma Swirl. 4.3 Structure of Plasma Jets. 4.3.1 APS Jet. 4.3.2 Structure of LPPS Jet. 4.4 Particles in Plasma. 4.4.1 Particles at APS. 4.4.2 Particle at LPPS. 4.4.2.1 Particle Acceleration and Heating in the LPPS Free Jet. 4.4.2.2 Particle Acceleration and Heating Inside the Nozzle. 4.5 Spray Footprint (Spray Pattern). 4.6 Infl uence of Particles on Plasma Flow. 4.7 Substrate Surface Temperature. 4.8 Formation of the Coating Layer. 4.9 Use of Different Plasma Gases. 4.10 Some Distinguishing Features of HVOF Physics. 5 Offl ine Simulation of a Thermal-Spray Process. 5.1 Simulation in Production. 5.2 Physical Background of Simulation Package. 5.2.1 Viscoplasticity Model of a Splat and Particle Bonding. 5.2.2 Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Argon/Hydrogen Mixtures. 5.2.3 Modeling of the Plasma Gun. 5.2.4 Modeling of the Plasma Jets. 5.2.4.1 APS Jet. 5.2.4.2 LPPS Jet. 5.2.5 Acceleration and Heating of Particles in Plasma. 5.2.6 Surface Thermal Conditions. 5.3 Spray Pattern. 5.3.1 Calibration of the Bonding Model and Sensitivity of a Spray Pattern to the Process Parameters, Spray Angle and Bonding Model. 5.3.2 Coating Porosity and Roughness. 5.4 Modeling of Turbine Blades. 5.5 Coating Thickness Optimization and Stochastic Modeling Tools. 5.6 Simulation of HVOF Process. 5.7 Use of Offl ine Simulation in Coating Development. 5.7.1 Application Areas of Modeling in the Coating Process. 5.7.1.1 Coating Defi nition and Design for Coating. 5.7.1.2 Coating-Process Development. 5.7.1.3 Part Development. 5.7.1.4 Physical Modeling and Offl ine Simulation as Process-Diagnostic Tools. 5.7.1.5 Simulation as a Numerical Experiment. 5.7.1.6 When the Offl ine Simulation Should Be Used. 6 Standards and Training. 6.1 Standards, Codes. 6.1.1 Introduction to Standards. 6.1.2 Quality Requirements for Thermally Sprayed Structures and Coating Shops. 6.1.3 Qualifi cation and Education of Spraying Personnel. 6.2 Special Case: Spraying for Power-Generation Components. 6.2.1 Coating-Process Development. 6.2.2 Coating Production. 6.2.3 General Requirements for Coating-Shop Personnel. 7 Monitoring, Shopfl oor Experience and Manufacturing Process Development. 7.1 Monitoring, Sensing. 7.1.1 Introduction of Monitoring. 7.1.2 Particle-Monitoring Devices. 7.1.3 Infl uence of Spray Parameters on Particle Speed and Temperature. 7.1.4 Infl uence of Particle Velocity and Temperature on Microstructure. 7.2 How to Use Monitoring for Process Control. 7.2.1 Monitoring, Sensing from a Job Shop Point of View. 7.2.2 Vision for Future Coating Control and Monitoring. 7.3 Manufacturing Coating Development. 7.3.1 Coating Development Process. 7.3.2 Coating Defi nition and Coating Specifi cation; Design for Coating. 7.3.3 Process Development. 7.3.3.1 Powder Selection. 7.3.3.2 Torch Parameters. 7.3.3.3 Spray Pattern and Standoff Distance. 7.3.3.4 Coating Mono-Layer; Powder Feed Rate and Traverse Gun Speed. 7.3.3.5 Spray Trials and Coating Qualifi cation. 7.3.3.6 Sensitivity Checks. 7.3.4 Part Development. 7.3.4.1 Coating Program. 7.3.4.2 Process Qualifi cation and Preserial Release. 7.3.5 Serial Release. 8 Outlook, Summary. 8.1 Thermal Spray Torches. 8.2 Future Offl ine Programming and Monitoring in Process Development and Production. References. Subject Index.

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527313372
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 285
  • ID: 9783527313372
  • weight: 660
  • ISBN10: 3527313370

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