This volume comprises selected, revised papers from the Joint CIM-WIAS Workshop, TAAO 2017, held in Lisbon, Portugal, in December 2017. The workshop brought together experts from research groups at the Weierstrass Institute in Berlin and mathematics centres in Portugal to present and discuss current scientific topics and to promote existing and future collaborations. The papers include the following topics: PDEs with applications to material sciences, thermodynamics and laser dynamics, scientific computing, nonlinear optimization and stochastic analysis. 45 Illustrations, color; 10 Illustrations, black and white; XV, 396 p. 55 illus., 45 illus. in color.