Translation universals is one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in recent translation studies. Can we discover general laws of translation, independent of the particularities of individual translations? Research into this is new: serious empirical work only began in the late nineties. The present volume offers the state of the art on the issue. It includes theoretical discussion on alternative conceptualisations and new distinctions around the basic concepts. Several papers test hypotheses on universals in the light of recent work in different languages, and some suggest new ones emerging from empirical work over the last two to three years. The book contributes to the search for generalities in translation, the methodological solutions available, and presents emerging evidence on the kinds of regularities that large-scale research is bringing forth. On a more practical level, the applicability of the hypotheses and findings to translator education is, as always, a concern for translation studies.
1. Introduction; 2. I. Conseptualising universals; 3. Probabilistic explanations in translation studies: Welcome as they are, would they qualify as universals? (by Toury, Gideon); 4. Beyond the particular (by Chesterman, Andrew); 5. When is a universal not a universal?: Some limits of current corpus-based methodologies for the investigation of translation universals (by Bernardini, Silvia); 6. II. Large-scale tendencies in translated language; 7. Corpora, universals and interference (by Mauranen, Anna); 8. Untypical frequencies in translated language: A corpus-based study on a literary corpus of translated and non-translated Finnish (by Eskola, Sari); 9. Untypical patterns in translations: Issues on corpus methodology and synonymity (by Jantunen, Jarmo); 10. III. Testing the basics; 11. Translation-specific lexicogrammar?: Characteristic lexical and collocational patterning in Swedish texts translated from English (by Nilsson, Per-Ola); 12. Explicitation: A universal of translated text? (by Papai, Vilma); 13. Explicitation of clausal relations: A corpus-based analysis of clause connectives in translated and non-translated Finnish children's literature (by Puurtinen, Tiina); 14. Unique items - over- or under-represented in translated language? (by Tirkkonen-Condit, Sonja); 15. IV. Universals in the translation class; 16. What happens to "unique items" in learners' translations?: "Theories" and "concepts" as a challenge for novices' views on "good translation" (by Kujamaki, Pekka); 17. The fate of "The Families of Medellin": Tampering with a potential translation universal in the translation class (by Jaaskelainen, Riitta); 18. Author index; 19. Subject index