The understanding of brain functions at the molecular level has been one of the greatest challenges for man. Up to now, the basis of its most important functions, including the development of consciousness and personality, and the mechanism of learning and memory, remains unknown. However, the pace of discovery at the morphological, cellular, neurophysiological and molecular levels of brain functions has been quite rapid in the past decades. Neuroscience has therefore been an over-advancing and extremely fascinating field of research which has made a significant contribution to our understanding of brain structure, chemistry and function. This book gives a concise synopsis of our present day knowledge of the basic chemical principles of how the brain works and how the brain develops. It is quite an intelligible approach to ordering the tremendous amount of knowledge accumulated so far in various research fields, particularly neurochemistry. Special emphasis has been given to the chemical language of many aspects of brain development as related to morphology and function. The final part is devoted to the plasticity of the brain and the impact of malnutrition and environment in early life on the development of mental functions. Particularly valuable are the many references to original literature, especially when controversial issues are discussed.The book is well written in an easily understandable manner and would be of great help to all students and scientists interested in the extensive and demanding field of neuroscience.