This work employs a subset of preindustrial cities on many continents to answer questions archaeologists grapple with concerning the populating and growth of cities before industrialization. It further explores how scholars differently conceive and execute their research on the population of cities. The subject cities are in Greece, Mesoamerica, the Andes, Italy, Egypt, Africa, United States, Denmark, and China. This broad sample provides a useful framework for answers to such questions as ""Why did people agglomerate into cities?"" and ""What threshold population size and settlement longevity constitute a city?"" The study covers more than population magnitude and population makeup, the two major frameworks of urban demography. The contributors combine their archaeological and historical expertise to reveal commonalities, as well as theoretical extrapolations and methodological approaches, at work here and outside the sample. ""Urbanism in the Preindustrial World"" is a unique study revealing the variety of factors involved in the coalescing and dispersal of populations in preindustrial times.