Using Political Ideas is a unique blend of political philosophy, political theory and history of political thought. It combines a critique of the major ideologies of recent and contemporary society with an analysis of the ideas that form the very stuff of political debate. By exposing the interplay between ideas and ideologies, it shows why political opponents often speak at cross-purposes and why rational agreement is so hard to achieve in politics. The sixth edition of this well-respected and widely known text will be welcomed by those interested in questions such as: * Is equality more important than personal freedom? * Does the majority have the right to dictate to the minority in multicultural society? * Is nationalism a progressive force in the world? Politics does not stand still, there are always new controversies and ideological conflicts and the climate of discussion changes. The sixth edition of this best-selling book is fully updated and includes a new chapter on authoritarian ideologies to reflect the growing extreme right-wing politics in parts of Europe.
This edition also provides a variety of new learning features, a comprehensive glossary, detailed lists of further reading and a list of questions for discussion.
Barbara Goodwin is Emeritus Professor of Politics at the University of East Anglia, Norwich. Her books include Justice by Lottery (2005) and Ethics at Work (2000) and several books on the political importance of utopian ideas. She has broadcast two series of programmes about democracy on the BBC World Service. Her interests range widely in politics, philosophy and social science.
About the Author xiii Preface to the Sixth Edition xv PART I INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 What is Political Theory? 3 Chapter 2 Ideology 19 Marx on Ideology 20 Ideology Since Marx 23 Conceptual Problems 29 PART II IDEOLOGIES Chapter 3 Liberalism 39 The Ingredients of Liberalism 41 The Liberal Model: Perpetual Motion? 51 Why Does the Liberal Value the Individual so Highly? 55 Do I Know My Own Interests? 58 Liberals and Welfare States 61 Liberalism Today 65 Chapter 4 Marxism 73 Problems in Reading Marx 74 The Vocabulary of the Dialectic 76 Marx s Economics 79 The Social Consequences 82 History and Revolution 84 Communist Society 89 Criticizing Marx 91 The Evolution of Marxism 96 Revisionism and Recantation 102 Chapter 5 Socialism 107 The Nucleus of Socialism 108 The Changing Face of Socialism 117 Objections to Socialism 124 The Contradictions of Social Democracy 127 Chapter 6 Anarchism 133 The Critique of Authority 135 The Anarchist Order 138 The Moral Basis of Anarchist Society 138 Freedom within Society 141 Order without Dependence 143 Anarchist Individualism 146 Anarchist Values 148 Contemporary Anarchism 149 Objections to Anarchist Theory 151 The Ethics of Violence 152 Chapter 7 Conservatism 161 Against Change 162 The Virtues of Tradition 166 Human Imperfection and Inequality 168 Conservative Politics 171 The Conservative Mentality 174 Conservatism Today 177 Ideology or Intuition? 179 Chapter 8 Authoritarian Ideologies: 183 Contrasting Dystopias 185 The Term Totalitarianism 188 The Phenomenological Approach 189 The Essentialist Analysis 191 Fascism as Totalitarianism 198 Fascism as Ideology 199 The Psychological Roots of Totalitarianism 203 Fundamentalist Authoritarianism 205 Totalitarianism Reconsidered 209 Chapter 9 Feminism 217 The Demonization of Women, and of Feminism 218 Feminists and Human Nature 220 Gendered Society 223 Patriarchal Society 225 Women and Capitalism 228 Oppression 232 Feminist Strategies 239 Feminism as Ideology 247 Chapter 10 Green Ideologies 253 Shades of Green 255 Economic Arguments 257 Anti-Pollution Arguments 262 Moral Arguments 264 Green Utopias 267 Problematic Questions 271 Green Successes 277 Chapter 11 Beyond Ideology: Nationalism 281 What is a Nation? 283 The Incoherence of Nationalism 285 The Origins of Nationalism 289 Is Nationalism an Ideology? 291 Nationalism, Liberalism and Democracy 294 Rights of Secession 295 Objections to Nationalism 298 PART III IDEAS Chapter 12 Democracy 305 The Classical Ideal 306 Elitists and Pluralists 311 Radical Democracy 315 Democracy s Paradox 320 The Problem of Minorities 322 Democracy and Liberalism 325 Democracy and Truth 328 The Will of the People 331 New Forms of Democracy 333 Chapter 13 Power, Authority and the State 341 What is Power? 342 What Creates Authority? 346 Power and Authority 350 The State Leviathan 351 Chapter 14 Freedom and Rights 361 The Meaning of Freedom 362 Varieties of Freedom 364 Freedom and Illusion 368 The Rights of Man 371 Human Rights 373 Special Rights for Women? 377 Rights and Liberty 380 The Climate of Tolerance 382 Chapter 15 Citizenship, Obligation and Protest 389 Contractual Obligation 391 The Just Government 396 Self-Interest and Gratitude 398 Why Do I Obey the Law? 400 The Right to Protest 402 The Scope of Protest 406 The Right of Revolution 410 Chapter 16 Social Justice and Equality 415 The Criteria for Justice 417 Liberal, Socialist and Natural Justice 420 Retributive Justice 428 What is Justice? 430 Nations and Generations 432 Justice and Equality 435 Chapter 17 New Political Dimensions 443 Religion and Politics 444 Multiculturalism, Diversity and Identity Politics 447 Globalization and Global Terrorism 450 Glossary 455 Index 469