Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recognized studies.
Xavier Begaud is Associate Professor at TELECOM ParisTech in France. His main research interests are the theory, conception, modeling and characterization of wideband, dual polarized and 3D antennas (with special emphasis on numerical methods), and the design of metamaterials, channel sounders and mutual coupling analysis in the framework of UltraWideBand and Software Radio.
Preface ix Chapter 1. Applications of Ultra Wide Band Systems 1 Serge HETHUIN and Isabelle BUCAILLE 1.1. Introduction 1 1.2. UWB regulation: a complex context 2 1.3. Formal Ultra Wide Band types 8 1.4. Non-formal ultra wide band types 14 1.5. Comparison between the different Ultra Wide Band techniques 20 1.6. Typical UWB-OFDM applications 21 1.7. Specialized UWB-OFDM applications 28 1.8. Typical applications of the Impulse Radio UWB, UWB-FH and UWB-FM 30 1.9. Impact on the antennas 32 Chapter 2. Radiation Characteristics of Antennas 33 Xavier BEGAUD 2.1. Introduction 33 2.2. How can we characterize an antenna? 37 2.3. Radiation fields and radiation power 40 2.4. Gain, efficiency and effective aperture 47 2.5. Budget link, transfer function 49 2.6. Equivalent circuits of the antennas 51 2.7. Bandwidth 52 2.8. Example of characterization: the triangular probe antenna in F 52 Chapter 3. Representation, Characterization and Modeling of Ultra Wide Band Antennas 61 Christophe ROBLIN 3.1. Introduction 61 3.2. Specificities of UWB antennas: stakes and representation 62 3.3. Temporal behavior, distortion 77 3.4. Distortion and ideality 80 3.5. Performance characterization: synthetic indicators 82 3.6. Parsimonious representation by development of singularities and spherical modes 95 Chapter 4. Experimental Characterization of UWB Antennas 113 Christophe DELAVEAUD 4.1. Introduction 113 4.2. Measurements of the characteristics of radiation 114 4.3. Measurements of the electric characteristics 156 Chapter 5. Overview of UWB Antennas 163 Nicolas FORTINO, Jean-Yves DAUVIGNAC, Georges KOSSIAVAS and Xavier BEGAUD 5.1. Classification of UWB antennas 163 5.2. Frequency independent antennas 164 5.3. Elementary antennas 177 5.4. Miniaturization of UWB antennas 202 5.5. UWB antennas for surface penetrating radars 206 Chapter 6. Antenna-Channel Joint Effects in UWB 213 Alain SIBILLE 6.1. Introduction 213 6.2. Recalls on the UWB radio channel 214 6.3. Impact of the channel on the performance of UWB systems 218 6.4. Effective antenna performance in an ideal channel 220 6.5. Effective performance of non-directional antennas in dispersive channels 225 6.6. Effective performance of directional antennas in dispersive channels 233 6.7. Factorization of antenna patterns 235 6.8. Conclusion 237 APPENDICES 239 Appendix A. Reciprocity of the Antennas in Receptionand Transmission Modes 241 A.1. Reciprocity applied to waveguides 243 A.2. Reciprocity applied to the passive antennas in transmission and reception 245 Appendix B. Method of the Stationary Phase 253 Acronyms and Abbreviations 255 Bibliography 259 List of Authors 273 Index 275