In 1569 the Spanish viceroy Francisco de Toledo ordered more than one million native people of the central Andes to move to newly founded Spanish-style towns called reducciones. This campaign, known as the General Resettlement of Indians, represented a turning point in the history of European colonialism: a state forcing an entire conquered society to change its way of life overnight. But while this radical restructuring destroyed certain aspects of indigenous society, Jeremy Ravi Mumford's Vertical Empire reveals the ways that it preserved others. The campaign drew on colonial ethnographic inquiries into indigenous culture and strengthened the place of native lords in colonial society. In the end, rather than destroying the web of Andean communities, the General Resettlement added another layer to indigenous culture, a culture that the Spaniards glimpsed and that Andeans defended fiercely.
Jeremy Ravi Mumford is Visiting Assistant Professor of History at Brown University.
Acknowledgments ix Introduction 1 Part I. Ethnography 1. The Cities 13 2. The Mountains 27 3. The Grid 41 4. Lords 53 Part II. Resettlement 5. "That So-Qualified Assembly" 75 6. The Viceroy 85 7. Tyrants 99 8. On the Ground 119 Part III. After 9. In and Out of the Reducciones 143 10. Four Hundred Years 157 Epilogue 175 Appendix 187 Notes 197 Glossary 255 Bibliography 259 Index 285