Video Compression and Communications: From Basics to H.261, H.263, H.264, MPEG4 for DVB and HSDPA-Style Adaptive Turbo-Transceivers

Video Compression and Communications: From Basics to H.261, H.263, H.264, MPEG4 for DVB and HSDPA-Style Adaptive Turbo-Transceivers

By: Lajos L. Hanzo (author), Peter Cherriman (author), Jurgen Streit (author)Hardback

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Since the publication of Wireless Video Communications five years ago, the area of video compression and wireless transceivers has evolved even further. This new edition addresses a range of recent developments in these areas, giving cognizance to the associated transmission aspects and issues of error resilience. Video Compression and Communications has been updated and condensed yet remains all-encompassing, giving a comprehensive overview of the subject. Covering compression issues, coding delay, implementational complexity and bitrate, the book also looks at the historical perspective to video communication.* New edition of successful and informative text, Wireless Video Communications* Substantial new material has been added on areas such as H.264, MPEG4 coding and transceivers* Clear presentation and broad scope make it essential for anyone interested in wireless communications* Systematically converts the lessons of Shannon's information theory into design principles applicable to practical wireless systems. This book is ideal for postgraduates and researchers in communication systems but will also be a valuable reference to undergraduates, development and systems engineers of video compression applications as well as industrialists, managers and visual communications practitioners.

About Author

Laios Hanzo, Universitv of Southamoton, UK Lajos Hanzo is currently chair of Telecommunications at University of Southampton in the department of Electronics and Computer Science. He has held various research and academic posts in Hungary, Germany and the UK over his 30-year career in communications. The author of over 600 research papers and co-author of over 30 books Hanzo is also an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer of the Communications Society and the Vehicular Technology Society and Governor of the IEEE VT Society. Dr. Peter J. Cherriman, University of Southampton, UK Peter Cherriman is currently at the University of Southampton. He is also working on projects for the Mobile Virtual Centre of Excellence, U.K. His current areas of research include robust video coding, microcellular radio systems, power control, dynamic channel allocation, and multiple access protocols. Dr. Jurgen Streit, University of Southampton, UK Jurgen Streit is also at the University of Southampton, working with the Mobile Multimedia Communications Research Group. He is also a software consultant.


About the Authors. Other Wiley and IEEE Press Books on Related Topics. Preface. Acknowledgments. 1 Introduction. 1.1 A Brief Introduction to Compression Theory. 1.2 Introduction to Video Formats. 1.3 Evolution of Video Compression Standards. 1.3.1 The International Telecommunications Union's H.120 Standard. 1.3.2 Joint Photographic Expert Group. 1.3.3 The ITU H.261 Standard. 1.3.4 The Motion Pictures Expert Group. 1.3.5 The MPEG-2 Standard. 1.3.6 The ITU H.263 Standard. 1.3.7 The ITU H.263+/H.263++ Standards. 1.3.8 The MPEG-4 Standard. 1.3.9 The H.26L/H.264 Standard. 1.4 Video Communications. 1.5 Organisation of the Monograph. I Video Codecs for HSDPA-Style Adaptive Videophones. 2 Fractal Image Codecs. 2.1 Fractal Principles. 2.2 One-Dimensional Fractal Coding. 2.2.1 Fractal Codec Design. 2.2.2 Fractal Codec Performance. 2.3 Error Sensitivity and Complexity. 2.4 Summary and Conclusions. 3 Low Bit-Rate DCT Codecs and HSDPA-Style Videophones. 3.1 Video Codec Outline. 3.2 The Principle of Motion Compensation. 3.2.1 Distance Measures. 3.2.2 Motion Search Algorithms. Full or Exhaustive Motion Search. Gradient-Based Motion Estimation. Hierarchical or Tree Search. Subsampling Search. Post-Processing of Motion Vectors. Gain-Cost-Controlled Motion Compensation. 3.2.3 Other Motion Estimation Techniques. Pel-Recursive Displacement Estimation. Grid Interpolation Techniques. MC Using Higher Order Transformations. MC in the Transform Domain. 3.2.4 Conclusion. 3.3 Transform Coding. 3.3.1 One-Dimensional Transform Coding. 3.3.2 Two-Dimensional Transform Coding. 3.3.3 Quantizer Training for Single-Class DCT. 3.3.4 Quantizer Training for Multiclass DCT. 3.4 The Codec Outline. 3.5 Initial Intra-Frame Coding. 3.6 Gain-Controlled Motion Compensation. 3.7 The MCER Active/Passive Concept. 3.8 Partial Forced Update of the Reconstructed Frame Buffers. 3.9 The Gain/Cost-Controlled Inter-Frame Codec. 3.9.1 Complexity Considerations and Reduction Techniques. 3.10 The Bit-Allocation Strategy. 3.11 Results. 3.12 DCT Codec Performance under Erroneous Conditions. 3.12.1 Bit Sensitivity. 3.12.2 Bit Sensitivity of Codec I and II. 3.13 DCT-Based Low-Rate Video Transceivers. 3.13.1 Choice of Modem. 3.13.2 Source-Matched Transceiver. System 1. System Concept. Sensitivity-Matched Modulation. Source Sensitivity. Forward Error Correction. Transmission Format. System 2. Automatic Repeat Request. Systems 3-5. 3.14 System Performance. 3.14.1 Performance of System 1. 3.14.2 Performance of System 2. FER Performance. Slot Occupancy Performance. PSNR Performance. 3.14.3 Performance of Systems 3-5. 3.15 Summary and Conclusions. 4 Low Bit-Rate VQ Codecs and HSDPA-Style Videophones. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 The Codebook Design. 4.3 The Vector Quantizer Design. 4.3.1 Mean and Shape Gain Vector Quantization. 4.3.2 Adaptive Vector Quantization. 4.3.3 Classified Vector Quantization. 4.3.4 Algorithmic Complexity. 4.4 Performance under Erroneous Conditions. 4.4.1 Bit-Allocation Strategy. 4.4.2 Bit Sensitivity. 4.5 VQ-Based Low-Rate Video Transceivers. 4.5.1 Choice of Modulation. 4.5.2 Forward Error Correction. 4.5.3 Architecture of System 1. 4.5.4 Architecture of System 2. 4.5.5 Architecture of Systems 3-6. 4.6 System Performance. 4.6.1 Simulation Environment. 4.6.2 Performance of Systems 1 and 3. 4.6.3 Performance of Systems 4 and 5. 4.6.4 Performance of Systems 2 and 6. 4.7 Joint Iterative Decoding of Trellis-Based VQ-Video and TCM. 4.7.1 Introduction. 4.7.2 System Overview. 4.7.3 Compression. 4.7.4 Vector quantization decomposition. 4.7.5 Serial concatenation and iterative decoding. 4.7.6 Transmission Frame Structure. 4.7.7 Frame difference decomposition. 4.7.8 VQ codebook. 4.7.9 VQ-induced code constraints. 4.7.10 VQ trellis structure. 4.7.11 VQ Encoding. 4.7.12 VQ Decoding. 4.7.13 Results. 4.8 Summary and Conclusions. 5 Low Bit-Rate Quad-Tree-Based Codecs and HSDPA-Style Videophones. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Quad-Tree Decomposition. 5.3 Quad-Tree Intensity Match. 5.3.1 Zero-Order Intensity Match. 5.3.2 First-Order Intensity Match. 5.3.3 Decomposition Algorithmic Issues. 5.4 Model-Based Parametric Enhancement. 5.4.1 Eye and Mouth Detection. 5.4.2 Parametric Codebook Training. 5.4.3 Parametric Encoding. 5.5 The Enhanced QT Codec. 5.6 Performance under Erroneous Conditions. 5.6.1 Bit Allocation. 5.6.2 Bit Sensitivity. 5.7 QT-Codec-Based Video Transceivers. 5.7.1 Channel Coding and Modulation. 5.7.2 QT-Based Transceiver Architectures. 5.8 QT-Based Video-Transceiver Performance. 5.9 Summary of QT-Based Video Transceivers. 5.10 Summary of Low-Rate Codecs/Transceivers. II High-Resolution Video Coding. 6 Low-Complexity Techniques. 6.1 Differential Pulse Code Modulation. 6.1.1 Basic Differential Pulse Code Modulation. 6.1.2 Intra/Inter-Frame Differential Pulse Code Modulation. 6.1.3 Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation. 6.2 Block Truncation Coding. 6.2.1 The Block Truncation Algorithm. 6.2.2 Block Truncation Codec Implementations. 6.2.3 Intra-Frame Block Truncation Coding. 6.2.4 Inter-Frame Block Truncation Coding. 6.3 Subband Coding. 6.3.1 Perfect Reconstruction Quadrature Mirror Filtering. Analysis Filtering. Synthesis Filtering. Practical QMF Design Constraints. 6.3.2 Practical Quadrature Mirror Filters. 6.3.3 Run-Length-Based Intra-Frame Subband Coding. 6.3.4 Max-Lloyd-Based Subband Coding. 6.4 Summary and Conclusions. 7 High-Resolution DCT Coding. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Intra-Frame Quantizer Training. 7.3 Motion Compensation for High-Quality Images. 7.4 Inter-Frame DCT Coding. 7.4.1 Properties of the DCT transformed MCER. 7.4.2 Joint Motion Compensation and Residual Encoding. 7.5 The Proposed Codec. 7.5.1 Motion Compensation. 7.5.2 The Inter/Intra-DCT Codec. 7.5.3 Frame Alignment. 7.5.4 Bit-Allocation. 7.5.5 The Codec Performance. 7.5.6 Error Sensitivity and Complexity. 7.6 Summary and Conclusions. III H.261, H.263, H.264, MPEG2 and MPEG 4 for HSDPA-Style Wireless Video Telephony and DVB. 8 H.261 for HSDPA-Style Wireless Video Telephony. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 The H.261 Video Coding Standard. 8.2.1 Overview. 8.2.2 Source Encoder. 8.2.3 Coding Control. 8.2.4 Video Multiplex Coder. Picture Layer. Group of Blocks Layer. Macroblock Layer. Block Layer. 8.2.5 Simulated Coding Statistics. Fixed-Quantizer Coding. Variable Quantizer Coding. 8.3 Effect of Transmission Errors on the H.261 Codec. 8.3.1 Error Mechanisms. 8.3.2 Error Control Mechanisms. Background. Intra-Frame Coding. Automatic Repeat Request. Reconfigurable Modulations Schemes. Combined Source/Channel Coding. 8.3.3 Error Recovery. 8.3.4 Effects of Errors. Qualitative Effect of Errors on H.261 Parameters. Quantitative Effect of Errors on a H.261 Data Stream. Errors in an Intra-Coded Frame. Errors in an Inter-Coded Frame. Errors in Quantizer Indices. Errors in an Inter-Coded Frame withMotion Vectors. Errors in an Inter-Coded Frame at Low Rate. 8.4 A Reconfigurable Wireless Videophone System. 8.4.1 Introduction. 8.4.2 Objectives. 8.4.3 Bit-Rate Reduction of the H.261 Codec. 8.4.4 Investigation of Macroblock Size. 8.4.5 Error Correction Coding. 8.4.6 Packetization Algorithm. Encoding History List. Macroblock Compounding. End of Frame Effect. Packet Transmission Feedback. Packet Truncation and Compounding Algorithms. 8.5 H.261-Based Wireless Videophone System Performance. 8.5.2 System Performance. 8.6 Summary and Conclusions. 9 Comparison of the H.261 and H.263 Codecs. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 The H.263 Coding Algorithms. 9.2.1 Source Encoder. Prediction. Motion Compensation and Transform Coding. Quantization. 9.2.2 Video Multiplex Coder. Picture Layer. Group of Blocks Layer. H.261 Macroblock Layer. H.263 Macroblock Layer. Block Layer. 9.2.3 Motion Compensation. H.263 Motion Vector Predictor. H.263 Subpixel Interpolation. 9.2.4 H.263 Negotiable Options. Unrestricted Motion Vector Mode. Syntax-Based Arithmetic Coding Mode. Arithmetic coding [1]. Advanced Prediction Mode. Four Motion Vectors per Macroblock. Overlapped Motion Compensation for Luminance. P-B Frames Mode. 9.3 Performance Results. 9.3.1 Introduction. 9.3.2 H.261 Performance. 9.3.3 H.261/H.263 Performance Comparison. 9.3.4 H.263 Codec Performance. Gray-Scale versus Color Comparison. Comparison of QCIF Resolution Color Video. Coding Performance at Various Resolutions. 9.4 Summary and Conclusions. 10 H.263 for HSDPA-Style Wireless Video Telephony. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 H.263 in a Mobile Environment. 10.2.1 Problems of Using H.263 in a Mobile Environment. 10.2.2 Possible Solutions for Using H.263 in a Mobile Environment. Coding Video Sequences Using Exclusively Intra-Coded Frames. Automatic Repeat Requests. Multimode Modulation Schemes. Combined Source/Channel Coding. 10.3 Design of an Error-Resilient Reconfigurable Videophone System. 10.3.1 Introduction. 10.3.2 Controling the Bit Rate. 10.3.3 Employing FEC Codes in the Videophone System. 10.3.4 Transmission Packet Structure. 10.3.5 Coding Parameter History List. 10.3.6 The Packetization Algorithm. Operational Scenarios of the Packetizing Algorithm. 10.4 H.263-Based Video System Performance. 10.4.1 System Environment. 10.4.2 Performance Results. Error-Free Transmission Results. Effect of Packet Dropping on Image Quality. Image Quality versus Channel Quality without ARQ. Image Quality versus Channel Quality with ARQ. 10.4.3 Comparison of H.263 and H.261-Based Systems. Performance with Antenna Diversity. Performance over DECT Channels. 10.5 Transmission Feedback. 10.5.1 ARQ Issues. 10.5.2 Implementation of Transmission Feedback. Majority Logic Coding. 10.6 Summary and Conclusions. 11 MPEG-4 Video Compression. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Overview of MPEG-4. 11.2.1 MPEG-4 Profiles. 11.2.2 MPEG-4 Features. 11.2.3 MPEG-4 Object Based Orientation. 11.3 MPEG-4 : Content-Based Interactivity. 11.3.1 Video Object Plane Based Encoding. 11.3.2 Motion and Texture Encoding. 11.3.3 Shape Coding. VOP Shape Encoding. Gray Scale Shape Coding. 11.4 Scalability of Video Objects. 11.5 Video Quality Measures. 11.5.1 Subjective Video Quality Evaluation. 11.5.2 Objective Video Quality. 11.6 Effect of Coding Parameters. 11.7 Summary and Conclusion. 12 Comparative Study of the MPEG-4 and H.264 Codecs. 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 The ITU-T H.264 Project. 12.3 H.264 Video Coding Techniques. 12.3.1 H.264 Encoder. 12.3.2 H.264 Decoder. 12.4 H.264 Specific Coding Algorithm. 12.4.1 Intra-frame Prediction. 12.4.2 Inter-frame Prediction. Block Sizes. Motion Estimation Accuracy. Multiple Reference Frame Selection for Motion Compensation. De-blocking Filter. 12.4.3 Integer Transform. Development of the 4 x 4-pixel Integer DCT. Quantisation. The Combined Transform, Quantisation, Rescaling and Inverse Transform Process. Integer Transform Example. 12.4.4 Entropy Coding. Universal Variable Length Coding. Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding. H.264 Conclusion. 12.5 Comparative Study of the MPEG-4 and H.264 Codecs. 12.5.1 Introduction. 12.5.2 Intra-frame Coding and Prediction. 12.5.3 Inter-frame Prediction and Motion Compensation. 12.5.4 Transform Coding and Quantisation. 12.5.5 Entropy Coding. 12.5.6 De-blocking Filter. 12.6 Performance Results. 12.6.1 Introduction. 12.6.2 MPEG-4 Performance. 12.6.3 H.264 Performance. 12.6.4 Comparative Study. 12.6.5 Summary and Conclusions. 13 MPEG-4 Bitstream and Bit-Sensitivity Study. 13.1 Motivation. 13.2 Structure of Coded Visual Data. 13.3 Visual Bitstream Syntax. 13.3.1 Start Codes. 13.4 Introduction to Error-Resilient Video Encoding. 13.5 Error-Resilient Video Coding in MPEG-4. 13.6 Error Resilience Tools in MPEG-4. 13.6.1 Resynchronisation. 13.6.2 Data Partitioning. 13.6.3 Reversible Variable-Length Codes. 13.6.4 Header Extension Code. 13.7 MPEG-4 Bit-Sensitivity Study. 13.7.1 Objectives. 13.7.2 Introduction. 13.7.3 Simulated Coding Statistics. 13.7.4 Effects of Errors. 13.8 Chapter Conclusions. 14 HSDPA-Like and Turbo-Style Adaptive Single- and Multi-Carrier Video Systems. 14.1 Turbo-equalised H.263-based videophony for GSM/GPRS. 14.1.1 Motivation and Background. 14.1.2 System Parameters. 14.1.3 Turbo Equalization. 14.1.4 Turbo-equalization Performance. Video Performance. Bit Error Statistics. 14.1.5 Summary and Conclusions. 14.2 HSDPA-Style Burst-by-burst Adaptive CDMA Videophony. 14.2.1 Motivation and Video Transceiver Overview. 14.2.2 Multimode Video System Performance. 14.2.3 Burst-by-Burst Adaptive Videophone System. 14.2.4 Summary and Conclusions. 14.3 Adaptive Turbo-Coded OFDM-Based Videotelephony. 14.3.1 Motivation and Background. 14.3.2 AOFDM Modem Mode Adaptation and Signaling. 14.3.3 AOFDM Subband BER Estimation. 14.3.4 Video Compression and Transmission Aspects. 14.3.5 Comparison of Subband-Adaptive OFDM and Fixed Mode. OFDM Transceivers. 14.3.6 Subband-Adaptive OFDM Transceivers Having Different Target Bit Rates. 14.3.7 Time-Variant Target Bit Rate OFDM Transceivers. 14.3.8 Summary and Conclusions. 14.4 HSDPA-Style Adaptive TCM, TTCM and BICM for H.263 Video Telephony. 14.4.1 Introduction. 14.4.2 System Overview. System Parameters and Channel Model. 14.4.3 Employing Fixed Modulation Modes. 14.4.4 Employing Adaptive Modulation. Performance of TTCM AQAM. Performance of AQAMUsing TTCM, TCC, TCMand BICM. The Effect of Various AQAM Thresholds. 14.4.5 TTCM AQAM in CDMA system. Performance of TTCM AQAM in CDMA system. 14.4.6 Conclusions. 14.5 Turbo-Detected MPEG-4 Video Using Multi-Level Coding, TCM and STTC. 14.5.1 Motivation and Background. 14.5.2 The Turbo Transceiver. Turbo Decoding. Turbo Benchmark Scheme. 14.5.3 MIMO Channel Capacity. 14.5.4 Convergence Analysis. 14.5.5 Simulation results. 14.5.6 Conclusions. 14.6 Near-Capacity Irregular Variable Length Codes. 14.6.1 Introduction. 14.6.2 Overview of Proposed Schemes. Joint source and channel coding. Iterative decoding 14.6.3 Parameter Design for the Proposed Schemes. Scheme hypothesis and parameters. EXIT chart analysis and optimization. 14.6.4 Results. Asymptotic performance following iterative decoding convergence. Performance during iterative decoding. Complexity analysis. 14.6.5 Conclusions. 14.7 Digital Terrestrial Video Broadcasting for Mobile Receivers. 14.7.1 Background and Motivation. 14.7.2 MPEG-2 Bit Error Sensitivity. 14.7.3 DVB Terrestrial Scheme. 14.7.4 Terrestrial Broadcast Channel Model. 14.7.5 Data Partitioning Scheme. 14.7.6 Performance of the Data Partitioning Scheme. 14.7.7 Nonhierarchical OFDM DVBP Performance. 14.7.8 Hierarchical OFDM DVB Performance. 14.7.9 Summary and Conclusions. 14.8 Satellite-Based Video Broadcasting. 14.8.1 Background and Motivation. 14.8.2 DVB Satellite Scheme. 14.8.3 Satellite Channel Model. 14.8.4 The Blind Equalizers. 14.8.5 Performance of the DVB Satellite Scheme. Transmission over the Symbol-Spaced Two-Path Channel. Transmission over the Two-Symbol Delay Two-Path Channel. Performance Summary of the DVB-S System. 14.8.6 Summary and Conclusions. 14.9 Summary and Conclusions. 14.10Wireless Video System Design Principles. Glossary. Bibliography. Subject Index. Author Index.

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470518496
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 702
  • ID: 9780470518496
  • weight: 1254
  • ISBN10: 0470518499

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