Viral Infections and Global Change

Viral Infections and Global Change

By: Sunit K. Singh (editor)Hardback

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Description

A timely exploration of the impact of global change on the emergence, reemergence, and control of vector-borne and zoonotic viral infections From massively destructive "superstorms" to rapidly rising sea levels, the world media is abuzz with talk of the threats to civilization posed by global warming. But one hazard that is rarely discussed is the dramatic rise in the number and magnitude of tropical virus outbreaks among human populations. One need only consider recent developments, such as the spread of chikungunya across southern Europe and dengue in Singapore, Brazil, and the southern United States, to appreciate the seriousness of that threat. Representing a major addition to the world literature on the subject, Viral Infections and Global Change explores trends of paramount concern globally, regarding the emergence and reemergence of vector-borne and zoonotic viruses. It also provides up-to-date coverage of both the clinical aspects and basic science behind an array of specific emerging and reemerging infections, including everything from West Nile fever and Rift Valley fever to zoonotic hepatitis E and human bunyavirus. Important topics covered include: Epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and evolutionary mechanisms Host-pathogen interactions in an array of viral infections The impact of climate change on historical viral outbreaks The roles of socioeconomics, human behavior, and animal and human migrations The growing prevalence of drug and pesticide resistance The introduction of microbes and vectors through increased transboundary travel Spillover transmissions and the emergence of viral outbreaks Detecting and responding to threats from bioterrorism and emerging viral infections Predictive modeling for emerging viral infections Viral Infections and Global Change is an indispensable resource for research scientists, epidemiologists, and medical and veterinary students working in ecology, environmental management, climatology, neurovirology, virology, and infectious disease.

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Contents

Foreword xxi Preface xxiii Contributors xxv About the Editor xxix Part I General aspects 1 1 Climate Change And Vector-Borne Viral Diseases 3 Ying Zhang, Alana Hansen, and Peng Bi 1.1 Introduction 4 1.2 Epidemiology of VVD 4 1.3 Association between climatic variables and emerging VVD 6 1.4 Invasion of nonzoonotic vvd to humans 14 1.5 Implications and recommendations for prevention and control 14 References 16 2 Impact Of Climate Change On Vector-Borne Arboviral Episystems 21 Walter J. Tabachnick and Jonathan F. Day 2.1 Introduction 22 2.2 The complex factors influencing mosquito-borne arbovirus episystems 24 2.3 West Nile virus 25 2.4 Dengue in Florida 28 2.5 Bluetongue 29 2.6 Conclusions 31 Acknowledgement 32 References 32 3 Influence Of Climate Change On Mosquito Development And Blood-Feeding Patterns 35 William E. Walton and William K. Reisen 3.1 Introduction 36 3.2 Mosquito development 37 3.3 Blood-feeding patterns 46 References 52 4 Environmental Perturbations That Influence Arboviral Host Range: Insights Into Emergence Mechanisms 57 Aaron C. Brault and William K. Reisen 4.1 Introduction 57 4.2 The changing environment 59 4.3 Deforestation and the epizootic emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus 62 4.4 Rice, mosquitoes, pigs, and japanese encephalitis virus 63 4.5 Culex pipiens complex, house sparrows, urbanization, and west Nile virus 66 4.6 Urbanization, global trade, and the reemergence of chikungunya virus 70 4.7 Conclusions 71 References 71 5 The Socio-Ecology Of Viral Zoonotic Transfer 77 Jonathan D. Mayer and Sarah Paige 5.1 Introduction 78 5.2 Historical perspective 78 5.3 Human animal interface 79 5.4 Surveillance 79 5.5 Deforestation and fragmentation 80 5.6 Urbanization 81 5.7 Examples 82 5.8 Conclusion 84 References 84 6 Human Behavior And The Epidemiology Of Viral Zoonoses 87 Satesh Bidaisee, Cheryl Cox Macpherson, and Calum N.L. Macpherson 6.1 Introduction 88 6.2 Societal changes and the epidemiology of viral zoonoses 89 6.3 Viral zoonoses and human societal values 92 6.4 Human behavior and the epidemiology of vector-borne viral zoonoses 93 6.5 Human behavior and the epidemiology of respiratory viral zoonoses 96 6.6 Human behavior and the epidemiology of waterborne viral zoonoses 98 6.7 Human behavior and the epidemiology of wildlife-associated viral zoonoses 101 6.8 The role of human behavior in the control of viral zoonoses 103 References 104 7 Global Trave l, Trade, And The Spread Of Viral Infections 111 Brian D. Gushulak and Douglas W. MacPherson 7.1 Introduction 112 7.2 Basic principles 113 7.3 An overview of population mobility 113 7.4 The dynamics of modern population mobility 114 7.5 Human population mobility and the spread of viruses 115 7.6 The biological aspects of population mobility and the spread of viruses 117 7.7 The demographic aspects of population mobility and the spread of viruses 119 7.8 Potential impact of climate change 126 7.9 Conclusion 127 References 128 8 Effects Of Land-Use Changes And Agricultural Practices On The Emergence And Reemergence Of Human Viral Diseases 133 Kimberly Fornace, Marco Liverani, Jonathan Rushton, and Richard Coker 8.1 Introduction 134 8.2 Ecological and environmental changes 136 8.3 Agricultural change 139 8.4 Demographic changes 141 8.5 Land use, disease emergence, and multifactorial causation 143 8.6 Conclusion 145 References 145 9 Animal Migration And Risk Of Spread Of Viral Infections 151 Diann J. Prosser, Jessica Nagel, and John Y. Takekawa 9.1 Introduction 152 9.2 Does animal migration increase risk of viral spread? 152 9.3 Examples of migratory animals and spread of viral disease 157 9.4 Climate change effects on animal migration and viral zoonoses 166 9.5 Shifts in timing of migration and range extents 166 9.6 Combined effects of climate change, disease, and migration 167 9.7 Conclusions and future directions 169 Acknowledgements 170 References 170 10 Illegal Animal And (Bush) Meat Trade Associated Risk Of Spread Of Viral Infections 179 Christopher Kilonzo, Thomas J. Stopka, and Bruno Chomel 10.1 Introduction 180 10.2 Search strategy and selection criteria 180 10.3 The bushmeat trade 181 10.4 Bushmeat hunting and emerging infectious diseases 181 10.5 Risk factors and modes of transmission 183 10.6 Conservation and wildlife sustainability 184 10.7 Case study: The role of the bushmeat trade in the evolution of Hiv 185 10.8 Illegal trade of domestic animals and exotic pets 186 10.9 Discussion and future directions 187 10.10 Prevention and control: From supply and demand to health education techniques 187 10.11 New technologies 188 10.12 Collaboration: Multidisciplinary advances and next steps 189 10.13 Conclusion 190 Conflicts of interest 190 References 190 11 Biological Significance Of Bats As A Natural Reservoir Of Emerging Viruses 195 Angela M. Bosco-Lauth and Richard A. Bowen 11.1 Introduction 195 11.2 Bats as exemplars of biodiversity 196 11.3 Bats are reservoir hosts for zoonotic and emerging pathogens 197 11.4 Contact rate as a driver for emergence of bat-associated zoonoses 203 11.5 Potential impact of climate change on viruses transmitted by bats 205 11.6 Conclusions 206 References 206 12 Role And Strategies Of Surveillance Networks In Handling Emerging And Reemerging Viral Infections 213 Carlos Castillo-Salgado 12.1 Introduction 214 12.2 Global trend of viral infectious agents and diseases 214 12.3 Recognized importance of public health surveillance 215 12.4 Definition and scope of public health surveillance 216 12.5 Key functions and uses of disease surveillance 217 12.6 New expansion of surveillance by the ihr-2005 218 12.7 Emergence of new global surveillance networks 218 12.8 Global influenza surveillance and who s pandemic influenza preparedness framework 219 12.9 Early warning surveillance systems 220 12.10 Innovative approaches for surveillance 222 12.11 Electronic and web-based information platforms for information reporting, sharing, and dissemination 222 12.12 Real-time and near real-time information 223 12.13 New updated statistical methods for tracking viral and infectious disease outbreaks 223 12.14 Using proxy and compiled web-based information from different sources 225 12.15 Incorporation of public private partnerships in surveillance activities 226 12.16 Use of volunteer sentinel physicians 226 12.17 Improving guidelines and protocols for viral surveillance 226 12.18 Incorporating health situation rooms or strategic command centers for monitoring, analysis, and response in surveillance efforts 227 12.19 Challenges of viral and public health surveillance 228 References 229 13 Predictive Modeling Of Emerging Infections 233 Anna L. Buczak, Steven M. Babin, Brian H. Feighner, Phillip T. Koshute, and Sheri H. Lewis 13.1 Introduction 233 13.2 Types of models 234 13.3 Remote sensing and its use in disease outbreak prediction 235 13.4 Approaches to modeling and their evaluation 241 13.5 Examples of prediction models 244 13.6 Conclusion 250 References 250 14 Developments And Challenges In Diagnostic Virology 255 Luisa Barzon, Laura Squarzon, Monia Pacenti, and Giorgio Palu 14.1 Introduction 256 14.2 Preparedness 258 14.3 Challenges in diagnosis of emerging viral infections 259 14.4 Approaches to the diagnosis of emerging viral infections 260 14.5 Conclusions 267 Acknowledgement 268 References 268 15 Advances In Detecting And Responding To Threats From Bioterrorism And Emerging Viral Infections 275 Stephen A. Morse and Angela Weber 15.1 Introduction 276 15.2 Emerging, reemerging, and intentionally emerging diseases 276 15.3 Bioterrorism 278 15.4 Viruses as bioweapons 279 15.5 Impact of biotechnology 282 15.6 Deterrence, recognition, and response 284 15.7 Public health surveillance 288 15.8 Conclusion 291 References 291 16 Molecular And Evolutionary Mechanisms Of Viral Emergence 297 Juan Carlos Saiz, Francisco Sobrino, Noemi Sevilla, Veronica Martin, Celia Perales, and Esteban Domingo 16.1 Introduction: Biosphere and virosphere diversities 298 16.2 Virus variation as a factor in viral emergence: a role of complexity 299 16.3 High error rates originate quasispecies swarms 300 16.4 Evolutionary mechanisms that may participate in viral disease emergence 302 16.5 Ample genetic and host range variations of fmdv: a human epidemic to be? 304 16.6 The arbovirus host alternations: high exposure to environmental modifications 307 16.7 Arenaviruses: As an emerging threat 313 16.8 Conclusion 315 Acknowledgement 316 References 316 17 Drivers Of Emergence And Sources Of Future Emerging And Reemerging Viral Infections 327 Leslie A. Reperant and Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus 17.1 Introduction 328 17.2 Prehistoric and historic unfolding of the drivers of disease emergence 329 17.3 Proximal drivers of disease emergence and sources of future emerging and reemerging viral infections 334 17.4 Further insights from the theory of island biogeography 338 References 339 18 Spillover Transmission And Emergence Of Viral Outbreaks In Humans 343 Sunit K. Singh 18.1 Introduction 343 18.2 Major anthropogenic factors responsible for spillover 344 18.3 Major viral factors playing a role in spillover 347 18.4 Intermediate hosts and species barriers in viral transmission 349 18.5 Conclusion 349 References 349 Part II Specific Infections 353 19 New, Emerging, And Reemerging Respiratory Viruses 355 Fleur M. Moesker, Pieter L.A. Fraaij, and Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus 19.1 Introduction 356 19.2 Influenza viruses 359 19.3 Human metapneumovirus 362 19.4 Human coronaviruses: SARS and non-SARS 363 19.5 Human bocavirus 366 19.6 KI and WU polyomaviruses 367 19.7 Nipah and hendra viruses 368 19.8 Conclusion 369 19.9 List of abbreviations 369 References 370 20 Emergence Of Zoonotic Orthopox Virus Infections 377 Tomoki Yoshikawa, Masayuki Saijo, and Shigeru Morikawa 20.1 Smallpox, a representative orthopoxvirus infection: The eradicated non-zoonotic orthopoxvirus 377 20.2 Zoonotic Orthopoxviruses 379 Acknowledgement 387 References 387 21 Biological Aspects Of The Interspecies Transmission Of Selected Coronavi ruses 393 Anastasia N. Vlasova and Linda J. Saif 21.1 Introduction 393 21.2 Coronavirus classification and pathogenesis 397 21.3 Natural reservoirs and emergence of new coronaviruses 399 21.4 Alpha-, beta- and gamma coronaviruses: cross-species transmission 404 21.5 Anthropogenic factors and climate influence on coronavirus diversity and outbreaks 407 21.6 Conclusion 410 References 410 22 Impac t Of Environmental And Social Factors On Ross River Virus Outbreaks 419 Craig R. Williams and David O. Harley 22.1 Introduction 420 22.2 History of mosquito-borne epidemic polyarthritis outbreaks in australia and the pacific 420 22.3 RRV transmission cycles have a variety of ecologies 421 22.4 Typical environmental determinants of RRV activity 422 22.5 Social determinants of RRV disease activity 423 22.6 A Conceptual framework for understanding the influence of environmental and social factors on RRV disease activity 423 22.7 Climate Change and RRV 427 22.8 Conclusion 427 Acknowledgement 428 References 428 23 Infection Patterns And Emergence Of O nyong-Nyong Virus 433 Ann M. Powers 23.1 Introduction 433 23.2 History of outbreaks 434 23.3 Clinical manifestations 435 23.4 Epidemiology 435 23.5 Factors affecting emergence 437 23.6 Conclusion 440 References 441 24 Zoonotic Hepa titis E: Animal Reservoirs, Emerging Risks, And Impact Of Climate Change 445 Nicole Pavio and Jerome Bouquet 24.1 Introduction 446 24.2 HEV biology and classification 446 24.3 Pathogenesis in humans 449 24.4 Animal Reservoirs 451 24.5 Zoonotic and Interspecies Transmission of HEV and HEV-like viruses 454 24.6 HEV in the environment 456 24.7 Climate change and impact on HEV exposure 457 24.8 Prevention 458 24.9 Conclusion 458 Acknowledgement 459 References 459 25 Impact Of Climate Change On Outbreaks Of Arenaviral Infections 467 James Christopher Clegg 25.1 Introduction 467 25.2 Natural history of arenaviruses 468 25.3 Predicted climate changes 470 25.4 Arenaviral diseases and climate change 471 References 473 26 Emerging And Reemerging Human Bunyavirus Infections And Climate Change 477 Laura J. Sutherland, Assaf Anyamba, and A. Desiree LaBeaud 26.1 Introduction 478 26.2 Bunyaviridae family 478 26.3 Climate Change and Bunyaviridae: Climatic influences on transmission cycles and subsequent risk for transmission of bunyaviruses 482 26.4 Disease spread due to growing geographic distribution of competent vectors 485 26.5 using climate as a means for outbreak prediction 486 26.6 Future problems 489 References 489 27 Emerging Trend Of Astroviruses, Enteric Adenoviruses, And Rotavi ruses In Human Viral Gastroenteritis 495 Daniel Cowley, Celeste Donato, and Carl D. Kirkwood 27.1 Introduction 496 27.2 Emerging trends in rotaviruses 497 27.3 Emerging trends in enteric adenoviruses 501 27.4 Emerging trends in astroviruses 504 28 Emerging Human Norovirus Infections 517 Melissa K. Jones, Shu Zhu, and Stephanie M. Karst 28.1 Introduction 517 28.2 Norovirus epidemiology 518 28.3 Features of norovirus outbreaks 519 28.4 Clinical features of norovirus infection 521 28.5 Host Susceptibility 522 28.6 Effect of increased size of immunocompromised population 522 28.7 Effect of globalization of the food market on norovirus spread 523 28.8 Effect of climate change 525 References 525 29 Emergence Of Novel Viruses (Toscana, Usutu) In Population And Climate Change 535 Mari Paz Sanchez-Seco Farinas and Ana Vazquez 29.1 Introduction 536 29.2 TOSV 536 29.3 USUV 542 29.4 Conclusions 550 30 Borna Disease Virus And The Search For Human Infection 557 Kathryn M. Carbone and Juan Carlos de la Torre 30.1 Introduction 558 30.2 Long-standing controversy around bdv as a human pathogen 559 30.3 A negative is impossible to prove, but do we have enough evidence to stop looking? 560 30.4 Recent improvements in testing for evidence of bdv in human samples 562 30.4.1 Serology 562 30.4.2 Nucleic acid tests 563 30.5 The possibilities for clinical expression of human bdv infection are myriad and almost impossible to predict 563 30.6 Epidemiology: the new frontier of human bdv studies? 565 30.7 Where do we go from here? 566 Acknowledgement 568 References 568 31 Tick-Transmitted Viruses And Climate Change 573 Agustin Estrada-Pena, Zdenek Hubalek, and Ivo Rudolf 31.1 Introduction 574 31.2 Ticks in nature 575 31.3 Family Flaviviridae 576 31.4 Family Bunyaviridae 583 31.5 Family Reoviridae 590 31.5.1 Colorado tick fever virus 590 31.5.2 Kemerovo virus 590 31.5.3 Tribee virus 591 31.6 Family Orthomyxoviridae 591 31.6.1 Thogoto virus 591 31.6.2 Dhori virus 592 31.7 Other tick-transmitted viruses 592 31.8 Conclusions 592 Acknowledgements 594 References 594 32 The Tick Virus Interface 603 Kristin L. McNally and Marshall E. Bloom 32.1 Introduction 604 32.2 Viruses within the tick vector 605 32.3 Saliva-assisted transmission 609 32.4 Summary and future directions 611 Acknowledgements 612 References 612 Index 617

Product Details

  • publication date: 29/11/2013
  • ISBN13: 9781118297872
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 660
  • ID: 9781118297872
  • weight: 1320
  • ISBN10: 1118297873

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