War trauma has long been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a term coined in 1980 to explain the post-war impact of Vietnam veterans. The Gulf and Balkan wars added new dimensions to the traditional PTSD definition, due largely to the changing dynamics of these wars. With these wars came unprecedented use of reserve and National Guard personnel in U.S. forces along with the largest contingent of female military personnel to date. Rapid deployment, sexual assaults, and suicides surfaced as paramount untreated problems within coalition force. Rapes, torture, suicides, and a high prevalence of untreated civilian victims of the Balkan wars added to the new dimensions of the traumatic stress continuum. Suicide bombers and roadside bombings added to the definition of combat stress, as military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan were forced to be constantly vigilant for these attacks-regardless of whether they served in combat areas.
Laurence Armand French is a sociologist, criminologist, and psychologist. He has worked with traumatic stress clients for over forty years. Previously, he served in the U.S. Marine Corps from 1959-65. Lidija Nikolic-Novakovic speaks both English and Serbian fluently. She lived in Vojvodina with her family during the NATO air attacks from March to June of 1999.
Chapter One: Introduction to Psycho-cultural and Historical Precedents to Classifications of Traumatic Stress Psycho-cultural Factors Emergence of Standards for Medical and Clinical Classifications Classifying War Trauma Incidence of PTSD Worldwide Chapter Two: Continuum of Socio-Cultural Adjustments to War trauma from Sublimation to Suicide Introduction Irma's Story Lidija's Story Serious Trauma: Rape and Torture Trauma and Suicide Chapter Three: The Neurophysiology and Neuropsychology of Trauma Adjustment Introduction The Basis of Human Neurophysiology The Neuropsychology of Human Behavior Chapter Glossary Chapter Four: Dimensions of Gulf War Trauma Introduction The U.S. National Guard The First Gulf War - Kuwait and Iraq The Second Gulf War - Iraq and Afghanistan Operation Enduring Freedom Operation Iraqi Freedom Dimensions of Combat Stress Invisible Wounds of War Social and Cultural Factors of the U.S. Military The Unintended Consequences of War Trauma Substance Abuse Sex Abuse within the Military War related Violence and Suicide Chapter Five: Dimensions of Balkan War Trauma Introduction: The First and Second Balkan Wars Antecedents to the Third Balkan War The Balkan War of 1991-1995 The Balkan War of 1996-2002 Review of the Clinical Literature on the War's Aftermath Veterans General War Trauma Refugees Women and Children Reconciliation Map of Yugoslavia Chapter Six: Assessment and Treatment of Trauma Introduction: Reliability and Validity Screening and Assessment Mental Status Exam The DSM-V Proposed PTSD draft revisions The MMPI's The Validity Scales The Clinical Scales Political Correctiveness and MMPI revisions Other Tests for Depression and Anxiety The Projectives Brief Assessment tools for Anxiety and Depression Training Protocols in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia The Slavic-language Personality Inventory-360 The Problem-Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) Partner/Relationship Inventory (PRI) Summary Treatment Protocols Psychotherapies Psychopharmacology Combination Therapies Preventive and Aftercare Protocols Chapter Seven: International Trauma Bibliography Endnotes Index