Post-war democratization has been identified as a crucial mechanism to build peace in war-ridden societies, supposedly allowing belligerents to compete through ballots rather than bullets. A byproduct of this process, however, is that military leaders often become an integral part of the new democratic system, using resources and networks generated from the previous war to dominate the emerging political landscape. The crucial and thus-far overlooked question to be addressed, therefore, is what effect the inclusion of ex-militaries into electoral politics has on post-war security. Can 'warlord democrats' make a positive contribution by shepherding their wartime constituencies to support the building of peace and democracy, or are they likely to use their electoral platforms to sponsor political violence and keep war-affected communities mobilized through aggressive discourses? This important volume, containing a wealth of fresh empirical detail and theoretical insight, and focussing on some of Africa's most high-profile political figures - from Paul Kagame to Riek Machar to Afonso Dhlakama - represents a crucial intervention in the literature of post-war democratization.
Anders Themner is a senior researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute and an assistant professor at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University. His research focus is on post-civil war democratization; disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants (DDR); and informal military networks in post-civil war societies
Introduction: Warlord Democrats: Wartime Investments, Democratic Returns? - Anders Themner 1. Pompier-pyromanocracy: Mbusa Nyamwisi and the DR Congo's Inflammable Post-settlement Political Order - Judith Verweijen 2. Apotheosis of a Warlord: Paul Kagame - Lars Waldorf 3. Discourses of Peace and Fear: The Electoral Navigations of Sekouh Conneh and Prince Johnson in Post-war Liberia - Carrie Manning and Anders Themner 4. Afonso Dhlakama and RENAMO's Return to Armed Conflict since 2013: The Politics of Reintegration in Mozambique - Alex Vines 5. From Warlord to Drug Lord: The Life of Joao Bernardo `Nino' Vieira - Henrik Vigh 6. Shape-shifters in the Struggle for Survival: Post-war Politics in Sierra Leone - Mimmi Soederberg Kovacs and Ibrahim Bangura 7. Riek Machar: Warlord-Doctor in South Sudan - Johan Brosche and Kristine Hoeglund Conclusion: Ambiguous Peacelords: The Diminishing Returns of Post-war Democracy - Anders Themner