List of Tables. List of Abbreviations. Acknowledgments. I. Introduction. Comparing Egypt and Israel. Revisionist History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Was MAPAM a Marxist Party? Nations, the Construction of Hegemony, and Political Discourse. Structure of the Book. Narration and Politics. II. The Creation of Israel: Zionism as Anti-Imperialism. The Unification of the Marxist-Zionist Left. MAPAM and the 1948-49 War. The Palestine Communist Party's Road to Binationalism. The Communist Educational Association. The Palestinian Arab Intelligentsia and the National Liberation League. Two Paths to Endorsing Partition of Palestine. Toward the Communist Party of Israel. The Palestine Question and the Egyptian Communists. The Marxist Left After Partition. III. The Political Economy of Hegemony. Labor and Capital in the Zionist Movement. The Seamen's Strike and Israel's International Orientation. Confirmation of MAPAI Hegemony. Deradicalization and Depoliticization of ibe Kibbutzim. The Old Regime and the Egyptian National Movement. The Coup of July 23, 1952. The Revolutionary Command Council and the Working Class. The Workers' Movement and the 1956 War Guided Capitalism. The Communist Intelligentsia's Accommodation with Nasserism. Arab Socialism. IV. A Window of Opportunity? 1949-1955. The Jewish Question in Egyptian Communism. The Rise of the Indigenous Intelligentsia. "The Question of Yunis". Was There a "Zionist Deviation" in the DMNL? A MAPAM-MAKI United Front?. Elections to the Constituent Assembly (First Knesset) Marxism Engaged in a Jewish Problematic. The Rise and Decline of the Left in MAPAM. The Left Socialist Party. Defense of the Rights of the Arab Minority. V. Internationalism in Practice: Relations Between the Egyptian and Israeli Marxists. The International Peace Movement. The Rome Group and DMNL-MAKI Contacts. Yusuf Hilmi's Peace Initiative. VI. The Consolidation of Nationalist Politics: 1955-1958. The Illusion of Success. Bandung and the Czech Arms Deal. The Suez/Sinai War and MAPAM's Capitulation. The Nasserist-Communist Movement. The Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and National Communism. MAKI's Arab Period. VII. The Triumph of Nationalism: 1959-1965. Breakup of the Nasserist-Communist Alliance. Dissolution of the Egyptian Communist Parties. Nasserism, MAPAM, MAKI, and the Palestinian Arab Citizens of Israel. Defeat of the Left in the 1959 Knesset Elections. A New Beginning - or the Beginning of the End?. MAKI and Jewish National Communism. Toward the Split in MAKI. Decline of MAKI's Influence in the Jewish Working Class. Mobilization of the Palestinian Arab Citizens of Israel. VIII. Conclusion. Marxism, Zionism, and Arab Nationalism. Political Discourse and Political Action Epilogue: Toward a Palestinian State and Beyond.