Waste Management Practices: Municipal, Hazardous, and Industrial, Second Edition addresses the three main categories of wastes (hazardous, municipal, and "special" wastes) covered under federal regulation outlined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), an established framework for managing the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of several forms of waste. Focusing on integrating the technical and regulatory complexities of waste management, this book covers the historical and regulatory development of waste management and the management of municipal solid wastes. It also addresses hazardous wastes and their management, from the perspectives of identification, transportation, and requirements for generators as well as the treatment, storage, and disposal facilities.
Features: * Covers the three main categories of wastes under regulation in the United States * Incorporates an extensive set of problems, presented at the end of several chapters as appendices * Includes numerous review/homework questions at the end of each chapter * Highlights special categories of waste that may not fit precisely into either RCRA Subtitle D (Solid Wastes) or Subtitle C (Hazardous Wastes) In addition to the end-of-chapter problems provided in all chapters of this book, the text also contains practical exercises using data from field situations. Waste Management Practices: Municipal, Hazardous, and Industrial, Second Edition is an ideal textbook or reference guide for students and professionals involved in the management of all three categories of wastes.
John Pichtel is a professor of natural resources and environmental management at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. He received his PhD in environmental science and his MS in soil chemistry/agronomy from The Ohio State University, and his BS in natural resources management from Rutgers University. His primary research and professional activities have been in management of hazardous and municipal wastes, remediation of contaminated sites, reclamation of mined lands, and environmental chemistry. He has authored or co-authored approximately 40 research articles. Pichtel has served as a consultant in hazardous waste management projects and has conducted environmental assessments and remediation research in the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Finland, and Poland.
Part I Historical and Regulatory Development Introduction Definition of a Solid Waste Categories of Wastes Generation of MSW Solid Waste Management Questions References Suggested Readings and Web Sites A Brief History of Waste Management Introduction Earliest Civilizations Greece Rome Europe United States Recent Waste Management Initiatives Solid Waste Incineration and Other Thermal Processes Land Disposal and the Sanitary Landfill Recycling/Reuse Questions References Regulatory Development Introduction Significant US Legislation Other Recent Laws Affecting Waste Management Relationship of RCRA with Other Environmental Statutes Laws, Regulations, and Other Actions at the Federal Level Questions References Suggested Readings Part II Municipal Solid Wastes Characterization of Solid Waste Introduction Sampling Protocols for MSW Variability Affecting Waste Sampling Common Components in Municipal Solid Waste Chemical Properties of MSW Physical Properties of MSW Questions Exercise: Waste Characterization References Suggested Readings Municipal Solid Waste Collection Introduction Developing a Waste Collection System Logistics of the Collection Program Questions References Suggested Readings Recycling Solid Wastes Introduction Recycling Terminology Recycling Progress and Statistics Recovery and Markets for Components of the Waste Stream Market Issues Purity of Materials Paper Glass Aluminum Ferrous Metals Plastics Yard Waste Food Waste Tires and Rubber Goals for the Nation Questions References Suggested Readings Municipal Solid Waste Processing: Materials Recovery Facilities Introduction The Materials Recovery Facility Materials Recovery at MRF Unit Operations Materials Separation and Processing at the MRF Materials Flow in the MRF The Contamination Issue Environmental Control Questions References Suggested Readings Composting MSW Introduction Benefits of Composting Overview of the Composting Process The Role of Microorganisms in Composting Factors Affecting the Composting Process The Composting Stage The Curing Stage Environmental Concerns During Composting Occupational Health and Safety Concerns During Composting Facility Siting Design MSW Composting by Anaerobic Processes Questions Exercise: Soil and Groundwater Quality at a Composting Facility References Suggested Readings Incineration of MSW Introduction Combustion Concepts The Mass-Burn Incinerator Environmental Considerations of Mass Burn Air Pollution Control Ash Quality from Mass Burn Metals Health Effects of Metals in Incinerator Ash Leachability of Metals in Incinerator Ash MSW Incineration in the United States: the Future Refuse-Derived Fuel Questions References Suggested Readings The Sanitary Landfill Introduction Relevant Definitions under the RCRA Regulations Siting the Landfill Requirements of Operation Receipt of Hazardous Waste Inspections Training Landfill Design Clay Liners Hydraulic Conductivity Geomembrane Liners Compatibility of Liners with Wastes Survivability Tests Permeability Stress Geomembrane Liner Handling and Placement Construction Quality Assurance Daily Operations and Issues Trace Gases Landfill Gas Control Gas Utilization Other Air Criteria Public Access Control of Run-On and Runoff Management of Surface Water Restrictions on Liquids in Landfills Leachate Formation Geosynthetic Materials Collection Laterals Sumps Leachate Treatment Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective Action Record Keeping Closure Postclosure The Bioreactor Landfill Landfill Reclamation Questions Exercise: Groundwater Quality at a Midwest References Suggested Readings Part III Hazardous Waste Management Identification of Hazardous Waste Introduction The RCRA Subtitles Subtitle C: the Hazardous Waste Management Program Definition of a Solid Waste Generation of Hazardous Wastes Questions References Suggested Readings and Web Sites Hazardous Waste Generator Requirements Introduction Determining the Generator Category Generator Types Requirements for LQGs and SQGs Requirements of CESQGs Questions Appendix: Hazardous Waste Management Scenarios References Suggested Readings and Web Sites Hazardous Waste Transportation Introduction Modes of Hazardous Waste Transportation Transportation Requirements Emergency Response Information Segregation Hazardous Materials Incidents Appendix: Hazardous Waste Management Scenarios References Suggested Readings Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility Requirements Introduction Subpart A-General issues Regarding Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Subpart B-General Facility Standards Subpart C-Preparedness and Prevention Subpart D-Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures Subpart E-Manifest System, Record Keeping, and Reporting Subpart F-Releases from Solid Waste Management Units Subpart G-Closure and Postclosure Closure Plan Questions Appendix: Hazardous Waste Management Scenarios References Suggested Readings and Web Sites Incineration of Hazardous Wastes Introduction Combustion and its Residues Overview of Regulatory Requirements Combustion Standards under RCRA, Subpart O Mact Standards under the CAA Incineration Devices Air Pollution and its Control Questions References Suggested Readings Hazardous Waste Treatment Introduction Land Disposal Restrictions Waste Treatment Prior to Land Disposal Questions References Suggested Readings Land Disposal of Hazardous Waste Introduction The Land Disposal Restrictions Revisited The Secure Landfill Deep Well Injection of Hazardous Wastes Questions References Suggested Readings Part IV Special Categories of Waste Universal Wastes Introduction Universal Wastes Defined Categories of Universal Waste Handlers Management of Universal Wastes Response to Releases Tracking Universal Waste Shipments Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste Universal Waste Transporters Destination Facilities Responsibility of the States Questions References Further Readings and Web Sites Management of Used Oil Introduction Production and Properties of Lubricating Oils Chemical Composition of Used Motor Oil Chemical and Physical Changes of Oil During Engine Operation Potential Hazards with Used Oil History of Used Oil Management Requirements of the Used Oil Management Standards Used Oil Recycling Methods Disposal Questions Appendix: Scenarios References Suggested Readings Medical and Infectious Wastes Introduction The Medical Waste Tracking Act Definitions and Sources of Medical Waste Management of Medical Wastes Prior To Transport Facility Operations Types of Medical Waste Incinerators Modes of Incinerator Operation Advantages and Disadvantages of Incineration Microbial Inactivation Questions References Suggested Readings Construction and Demolition Debris Introduction Characteristics of C&D Debris Management of C&D Debris Management of Selected C&D Waste Components Reduction of C&D Debris Deconstruction Hazardous Materials Questions References Suggested Readings Electronics Waste Introduction Major Types of Electronic Equipment Questions References Suggested Readings and Web Sites Part V Appendix