Water is the most basic essential for plant growth; an inadequate supply causes severe problems, as plants rely on the water transmitted by soil to meet their physiological and nutritional needs. Since the first edition was published, flooding and droughts throughout the world have made water an even more topical subject, as the importance and instability of our water supplies have been brought to the forefront of daily life. This new edition of Water Dynamics in Plant Production focuses on the dynamics of water through the hydrologic cycle and the associated mechanisms that plants employ to optimize growth and development. It describes the basic scientific principles of water transport in the soil-plant atmosphere continuum, and explains the linkage between transpirational water use and dry matter production. Paying particular attention to the various agronomic strategies for adaptation to climate-driven limitations of water resources, the efficiency of water use in plant production and in achieving an economic yield is presented in detail. This book offers a multidisciplinary introduction to the fundamentals and applications of water dynamics in natural and managed ecosystems. Including text boxes throughout, as well as online supplementary material, it provides an essential state of-the-art resource for students and researchers of soil and plant science, hydrology and agronomy.
1: The Role of Water in Plant Life 1.1: Functions of Water in the Plant Box 1.1: Light and water - prerequisites of photosynthesis 1.2: Adaptation Strategies of Plants to Overcome Water Shortage 1.3: Water and Net Primary Production 1.4: Water and Type of Vegetation 2: The Role of Water in Soil 2.1: Soil Genesis and Soil Functions 2.2: Soil Fauna and Vegetation Cover 3: The Interdependence of Soil Water and Vegetation 3.1: The Significance of the Soil for Water Storage 3.2: Transpiration and Seepage of Water with Different Types of Vegetation 4: Properties and Energy State of Water 4.1: Physical-Chemical Properties 4.2: The Concept of Water Potential and the Darcy Equation 5: Water Storage and Movement in Soil 5.1: Fundamentals and Principles Box 5.1: Measuring soil water 5.2: Evaporation 5.3: Infiltration and Water Transport Box 5.2: Soil structure and preferential flow 6: The Root - the Plant's Organ for Water Uptake 6.1: The Role of the Root in the Plant 6.2: Structure of the Root Tip Box 6.1: Methods of studying roots 6.3: Root Systems 7: The Water Balance of the Plant 7.1: Water Potentials in Plant Cells 7.2: Water Uptake by Roots Box 7.1: Early experiments for determining water suction and water pressure of roots 7.3: Transpiration by Leaves 7.4: The Action of Stomatal Guard Cells 7.5: Water Transport within the Plant 7.6: Water Potentials in Plants Box 7.2: Searching for the cause of sap ascent 8: The Plant as a Link between Soil and Atmosphere:an Overview 8.1: The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) 8.2: Potential Evapotranspiration Box 8.1: Potential evaporation 8.3: Relations between Potential Evapotranspiration, Soil Water and Transpiration 9: Water Use by Crops 9.1: Growth of Roots and leaves 9.2: Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Transpiration 9.3: Root System Development and Water Uptake 9.4: How Much of the Soil Water is Extractable by Plant Roots? 9.5: Stomatal Control of Water Vapour Loss 9.6: Water Use Throughout the Growing Season 9.7: How to Determine the Components of the Field Water Balance 9.8: Numerical Simulation Box 9.1: How lysimeters work Box 9.2: Measurement of water flow through plants 10: Radiation and Dry Matter Production 10.1: Radiation and Net Photosynthesis of Single Leaves 10.2: Radiation Interception and Dry Matter Accumulation in Crop Stands 11: Water Use and Dry Matter Production 11.1: Relations and their Optimization Box 11.1: The saturation deficit of the air determines transpiration efficiency 11.2: The Transpiration Ratio and a Related Standard 11.3: Water Use and an Estimate of Dry Matter Production 12: Influence of Nutrient Supply on Water Use and Establishment of Yield 12.1: Yield Dependency on Water and Nutrient Supply 12.2: Influence of Nutrient Supply on the Relationship between Water Use and Yield 12.3: Transpiration Efficiency and Fertilizer Application 13: Development of Economic Yield under Inadequate Water Supply 13.1: Physiological Reactions and Assimilate Partitioning 13.2: Economic Yield 13.3: Water Shortage at Different Phenological Stages 13.4: Relation between Water Use and Economic Yield in Principal Crops 14: Water Stress in Plants 14.1: Measuring Water Stress in Plants 14.2: How Plants Perceive Water Stress Box 14.1: Signalling between roots and shoots 15: Climatic Factors Influencing Yield 15.1: Growth-limiting Climatic Factors 15.2: Climate Change 15.3: Plants, Soils and Cropping Pattern in a Changing Environment 16: Breeding for Yield and Water Use 16.1: Comparing Old and New Cultivars 16.2: Future Strategies in Plant Breeding 16.3: Application of Molecular Biology to Improve Crop Performance under Drought 17: Controlling the Soil's Water Balance by Soil Management 17.1: Which of the Balance Components can be Changed? 17.2: Controlling Infiltration 17.3: Controlling Evaporation 17.4: Increasing the Quantity of Extractable Soil Water Box 17.1: Collection of water south of Sahel: a man, a hoe and barren land 17.5: Conservation Tillage 18: Controlling Water Use by Crop Management 18.1: Crop Rotation 18.2: Choice of Species and Cultivars 18.3: Seeding and Stand Density 18.4: Fertilizer Application 19: Irrigation 19.1: Need, Concerns, Problems 19.2: Tapping Water - the Basis of Early Civilizations 19.3: Water Requirement of Crops 19.4: Timing and Adjusting the Application of Water 19.5: Efficient Water Use 19.6: Irrigation Methods 20: Epilogue