Leading experts in water-related fields have come together to make Water Encyclopedia a one-stop, comprehensive reference about the world s most important natural resource. It covers designated topics in a clear concise and authoritative manner. The treatment is practical in orientation, keeping in mind the needs of the users. Theory is included only where required for an understanding of the topic.
Jay Lehr is Senior Scientist at the Heartland Institute and Senior Scientist at Bennett & Williams, Inc. He has written 14 books and over 500 articles on environmental science. He received the nation s first Ph.D. in Ground Water Science form the university of Arizona in 1962. For 25 years he headed the Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers. In addition, Dr. Lehr has experience as an academic researcher in environmental science and helped the federal government develop several levels of environmental regulations, including the areas of surface water and ground water. Jack Keeley is the former Chief of Groundwater Research at the USEPA Kerr Water Resource Research Laboratory in Ada, Oklahoma.
Preface ix Acknowledgments xi Contributors xiii Domestic Water Supply The Arsenic Drinking Water Crisis in Bangladesh 1 Bottled Water 3 Corrosion Control in Drinking Water Systems 5 Economics of Residential Water Demands 12 Gray Water Reuse in Households 16 Water and Human Health 19 Nitrate Health Effects 30 Domestic Water Supply Public Private Partnership 42 Methods of Reducing Radon in Drinking Water 51 Water Reuse 53 Roof Drainage Hydraulics 54 Septic Tank Systems 61 Domestic Solar Water Heaters 63 Household Drinking Water Treatment and Safe Storage 67 Virus Transport in the Subsurface 70 Windmills 73 Municipal Water Supply Mixing and Agitation in Water Treatment Systems 76 Arsenic in Natural Waters 81 Evaluation of Microbial Components of Biofouling 83 Threat Agents and Water Biosecurity 87 Granular Activated Carbon 92 Competitive Adsorption of Several Organics and Heavy Metals on Activated Carbon in Water 107 A Real-Time Hydrological Information System for Cities 121 Chlorine and Chlorine Residuals 127 Modeling Chlorine Residuals in Urban Water Distribution Systems 131 Particulate Matter Removal by Coagulation 137 Selective Coagulant Recovery from Water Treatment Plant Residuals Using the Domain Membrane Process 139 Physical Water Conditioning 141 Consumer Confidence Reports 145 Water Conservation Measures 146 Preventing Well Contamination 149 Corrosion Control 152 Cross Connection and Backflow Prevention 155 Molecular-Based Detection of Cryptosporidium Parvum in Water 158 Cryptosporidium 162 Measuring Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocyst Inactivation Following Disinfection With Ultraviolet Light 165 Dechlorination 169 Desalination 170 Diatomaceous Earth Filtration for Drinking Water 174 Emerging Waterborne Infectious Diseases 177 Improving Waterborne Disease Surveillance 183 Disinfectants 192 Disinfection 196 Water Distribution System Operation 200 Water Quality in Distribution Systems 204 Design of Water Distribution Systems 207 What is in Our Drinking Water? 213 The Economics of Water Resources Allocation 215 Answering the Challenge 218 Key Causes of Drinking Water Quality Failure in a Rural Small Water Supply of South Africa 221 Filtration 227 Water Filtration 230 Filtration With Granular Media 233 Slow Sand Filtration and the Impact of Schmutzdecke 235 Multistage Drinking Water Filtration 237 Multistage Filtration: An Innovative Water Treatment Technology 238 Particulate Matter Removal by Filtration and Sedimentation 243 Filtration Water Treatment 245 Synthetic and Natural Organic Removal by Biological Filtration 248 Granular Bed and Precoat Filtration 249 Flocculation 252 Fluoridation 254 Giardiasis 257 Gravity Separation/Sedimentation 259 Water Hammer 261 Health Effects of Commonly Occurring Disinfection Byproducts in Municipal Water Supplies 264 Health Effects of Microbial Contaminants and Biotoxins in Drinking Water 277 Drinking Water and Public Health Protection 281 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards 292 Ion Exchange and Demineralization 297 The State of the Water Industry 2004 301 Iron and Manganese Removal 312 Extraterritorial Land Use Control to Protect Water Supplies 315 Leak Detection and Water Loss Control 317 Lime Soda Ash Processes 320 Lime Softening 322 Ion Exchange Use of Magnetic Ion Exchange Resin For DOC Removal 325 Membrane Filtration 331 Water Meters 337 Microbiological Concerns of Drinking Water Distribution Systems 341 Nitrification of Potable Water Using Trickling Filters 346 Organic Removal 350 Ozone 354 Ozone With Activated Carbon for Drinking Water Treatment 357 Ozone Bromide Interactions 357 Municipal Water Supply: Ozonation 362 Review of Parasite Fate and Transport in Karstic Aquifers 365 Particulate Removal 370 Pharmaceuticals in Water Systems 372 Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry Systems (POU/POE) 378 Assessing the Bactericidal Efficiency of Polydex for the Disinfection of Drinking Water in Rural Areas of South Africa 382 Private Sector Participation, Marketing and Corporate Strategies in Municipal Water Supply and Sewerage 387 Pumps 391 Radionuclides 395 Use of Redox Potentials in Wastewater Treatment 399 Repairing Distribution Line Breaks 400 Role of Small Water Reservoirs in Environment 403 Reservoirs, Towers, and Tanks Drinking Water Storage Facilities 408 Water Treatment Plant Residuals Management 411 Reverse Osmosis, Process Chemistry 414 Reverse Osmosis, Membrane Foulants 416 Reverse Osmosis, Membrane Cleaning 419 Application of Risk Assessments in Crafting Drinking Water Regulations 422 Potential Risks of Waterborne Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 429 Slow Sand Filtration 431 Approaches for Securing a Water Distribution System 434 Water Security: An Emerging Issue 437 Guide to Selection of Water Treatment Processes 439 Source Water Assessment 444 Hydraulic Design of Water Distribution Storage Tanks 448 System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) 449 Settling Tanks 452 Treatment for Technologies for Small Drinking Water Systems 457 Ultraviolet Disinfection 466 Ultraviolet Irradiation 469 Water Disinfection Using UV Radiation A Sri Lankan Experience 471 Drinking Water Quality Standards (DWQS)-United States 476 Valves 482 Removal of Pathogenic Bacteria, Viruses, and Protozoa 485 Water Meter 489 Municipal Watersheds 495 Public Water Supply World 500 Ten Key Trends That Will Shape the Future of the World Water Industry 508 Zebra Mussel Control Without Chemicals 510 Package Plants 514 Anaerobic Sewage Treatment 517 Persistence of Pathogens in Water 521 Well Head Protection 524 Chemical Drinking Water Standards, Past, Present, and Future 529 Industrial Water Magnetic Water Conditioning 534 Water Impacts from Construction Sites 537 Industrial Cooling Water Biofouling 538 Industrial Cooling Water Corrosion 542 Industrial Cooling Water Scale Formation 545 Economics of Industrial Water Demands 549 Electric Generating Plants Effects of Contaminants 553 Energy Dissipation 558 Water Use in Energy Production 560 Evaluation of Toxic Properties of Industrial Effluents by on-Line Respirometry 565 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 571 Hydrocarbon Treatment Techniques 575 Use of Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment Systems for Maize Processing Plants 581 Bonding of Toxic Metal Ions 586 Application of Microfiltration to Industrial Wastewaters 591 Water Treatment in Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage 595 Industrial Mine Use: Mine Waste 609 Sugarcane Industry Wastewaters Treatment 614 Estimated Use of Water in The United States in 1990 Industrial Water Use 620 Waste Water Treatment Aeration 623 Fine Bubble Diffused Air Aeration Systems 626 Air Stripping 631 Land Applications of Wastewater in Arid Lands: Theory and Case Studies 632 Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Water Sources 636 Biochemical Oxygen Demand 639 Molecular Biology Tools for Monitoring Biodiversity in Wastewater Treatment Plants 642 Biosolids 646 Integrated Capacity Building Needs for Water Supply and Wastewater Sanitation 651 Wastewater Characterization 656 Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment of Wastewater 659 Getting Our Clean Water Act Together 660 Inadequate Treatment of Wastewater: A Source of Coliform Bacteria in Receiving Surface Water Bodies in Developing Countries Case Study: Eastern Cape Province of South Africa 661 Denitrification in The Activated Sludge Process 667 Detergents 669 Ecological Wastewater Management 675 Waste Treatment in Fish Farms 681 Flotation as A Separation Process 684 Degradation of Chloro-Organics and Hydrocarbons 688 Landfill 695 Landfill Leachates, Part I: Origin and Characterization 699 Landfill Leachates: Part 2: Treatment 702 Macrophytes as Biomonitors of Polychlorinated Biphenyls 714 Wastewater Management for Developing Countries 718 Mercury Removal From Complex Waste Waters 722 Metal Speciation and Mobility as Influenced by Landfill Disposal Practices 723 Microbial Foaming in the Activated Sludge Process 728 Introduction to Wastewater Modeling and Treatment Plant Design 730 Practical Applications of Wastewater Modeling and Treatment Plant Design 738 New York City Harbor Survey 745 Nitrification in the Activated Sludge Process 751 Effluent Limitations and the NPDES Permit 755 Odor Abatement in Wastewater Treatment Plants 760 Aqueous Reactions of Specific Organic Compounds with Ozone 765 The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in The Wastewater Treatment Process 766 The Role of Organoclay in Water Cleanup 771 Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment 782 Biological Phosphorus Removal in the Activated Sludge Process 788 Photocatalytic Membrane Reactors in Water Purification 791 EPA s National Pretreatment Program, 1973 2003: Thirty Years of Protecting The Environment 798 Problems Encountered During Pipe Repair and Renewal 801 Radioactive Waste 802 Reclaimed Water 805 Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Technologies 808 Wastewater Treatment Processes and Water Reuse 814 Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Research 819 Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse 825 Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Treatment Technology 826 Sewage 828 Domestic Sewage 830 Solidification/Stabilization of Hazardous Solid Wastes 835 Wastewater Treatment Small Scale 840 Microbial Foaming and Bulking in Activated Sludge Plants 844 Aqueous Behavior of Elements in a Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge Disposal Site 848 Sludge Treatment and Disposal 853 Wastewater Sludge 861 Processing of Sludge 864 Municipal Storm Water Management 866 What Wastewater Utilities Can Do Now to Guard Against Terrorist and Security Threats 870 Wastewater Treatment Techniques Advanced 871 Trenchless Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques 876 Basics of Underground Water and Sewer Pipeline Assessment, Repair, and Rehabilitation 883 Water Hammer: Quantitative Causes and Effects 891 Constructed Wetlands 892 Using Ecosystem Processes in a Constructed Wetland to Treat Mine Wastewater in Ireland 897 Water and Wastewater Properties and Characteristics 900 Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment 904 Sewerage Odors How to Control 910 Ultrafiltration Complexation in Wastewater Treatment 916 Index 923