Maximizing the use of our visible surface supplies in light of their greatest need in agriculture presents an enormous challenge throughout the world. New techniques in agricultural applications to preserve resources and increase yields are featured. Dams, lakes, and hydraulic features of surface water systems are amply covered, along with the importance of storm water management to growing communities.
Jay Lehr is Senior Scientist at the Heartland Institute and Senior Scientist at Bennett & Williams, Inc. He has written 14 books and over 500 articles on environmental science. He received the nation s first Ph.D. in Ground Water Science form the university of Arizona in 1962. For 25 years he headed the Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers. In addition, Dr. Lehr has experience as an academic researcher in environmental science and helped the federal government develop several levels of environmental regulations, including the areas of surface water and ground water. Jack Keeley is the former Chief of Groundwater Research at the USEPA Kerr Water Resource Research Laboratory in Ada, Oklahoma.
Preface ix Contributors xi Surface Water Hydrology Acidification Chronic 1 Episodic Acidification 5 Acidification of Freshwater Resources 7 Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage 13 The Aral Sea Disaster: Environment Issues and Nationalist Tensions 15 Lake Baikal A Touchstone for Global Change and Rift Studies 20 Base Flow 22 River Basins 28 River Basin Planning and Coordination 33 Bioaccumulation 34 Biotic Integrity Index to Evaluate Water Resource Integrity in Freshwater Systems 36 Reversal of the Chicago River 41 Flood Control in the Yellow River Basin in China 45 Chironomids in Sediment Toxicity Testing 50 Cienega 57 Time-Area and The Clark Rainfall-Runoff Transformation 60 Stream Classification 65 Coastal Wetlands 71 Freshwater Colloids 74 Culvert Design 75 Dilution-Mixing Zones and Design Flows 78 Drainage Ditches 87 Drainage Networks 93 Dyes As Hydrological Tracers 95 Flow-duration Curves 102 Environmental Flows 106 Eutrophication (Excessive Fertilization) 107 Cultural Eutrophication 114 Fish Cells in the Toxicological Evaluation of Environmental Contaminants 115 Fish Consumption Advisories 118 Fisheries: History, Science, and Management 121 Factors Affecting Fish Growth and Production 129 Water Needs for Freshwater Fisheries Management 133 An Outline of the History of Fishpond Culture in Silesia, the Western Part of Poland 135 Floods 142 Flood Control Structures 150 Floods as a Natural Hazard 153 Flood Source Mapping in Watersheds 155 Urban Flooding 159 Floodwater Spreading 163 Minimum Environmental Flow Regimes 166 Forensic Hydrogeology 168 Forests and Wetlands 170 Rock Glacier 174 Great Lakes 175 Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Hydroelectric Reservoirs 180 Gully Erosion 183 Potential Health Issues Associated With Blue-Green Algae Blooms in Impoundments, Ponds and Lakes 188 Heat Balance of Open Waterbodies 190 Hydraulics 194 Hydraulics of Pressurized Flow 196 Hydroelectric Power 199 Hydroelectric Reservoirs as Anthropogenic Sources of Greenhouse Gases 203 Hydrologic Persistence and The Hurst Phenomenon 210 Unit Hydrograph 221 Hydrological Processes and Measured Pollutant Loads 222 Hydrologic Thresholds 229 Ganga River, India 232 Interception 235 Kinematic Shock 239 Kinematic Wave Method For Storm Drainage Design 242 Kinematic Wave and Diffusion Wave Theories 246 Kinematic Wave Flow Routing 253 Reliability Concepts in Reservoir Design 259 Lakes 265 The Theory of Alternative Stable States in Shallow Lake Ecosystems 272 NOAA Lake Level Forecast for Lake Michigan Right on Target 274 Submerged Aquatic Plants Affect Water Quality in Lakes 275 Lakes Discharges To 281 Lasers Scan Levees from the Air 284 Levees for Flood Protection 286 Limnology 291 Adsorption of Metal Ions On Bed Sediments 295 Microbiology of Lotic Aggregates and Biofilms 305 Microorganisms in Their Natural Environment 309 Calibration of Hydraulic Network Models 313 Numerical Modeling of Currents 320 Uncertainty Analysis in Watershed Modeling 325 Watershed Modeling 327 Modeling of Water Quality in Sewers 331 Modeling of Urban Drainage and Stormwater 337 Modeling Ungauged Watersheds 342 Corps Turned Niagara Falls Off, On Again 345 Open Channel Design 346 Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Freshwater Streambed Sediment and Fish from the Puget Sound Basin 349 Impervious Cover Paving Paradise 363 Phytoremediation By Constructed Wetlands 364 Unrecognized Pollutants 371 Pollution of Surface Waters 373 Pond Aquaculture Modeling and Decision Support Systems 375 Pumping Stations 379 Regulated Rivers 381 Reservoirs-Multipurpose 382 Dam Removal as River Restoration 387 Riparian Systems 390 Rivers 392 River and Water Facts 394 Sediment Load Measurements 397 Sedimentation 401 Sedimentation and Flotation 404 Reservoir Sedimentation 408 Water from Saturated River Sediment Sand Abstraction 412 Sediment Transport 417 Stochastic Simulation of Hydrosystems 421 Storage and Detention Facilities 430 Urban Stormwater Runoff Water Quality Issues 432 Rivers and Streams: One-Way Flow System 437 Streamflow 439 Water Quality in Suburban Watersheds 441 Surface Water Pollution 444 Surface Runoff and Subsurface Drainage 451 Trace Elements in Water, Sediment, and Aquatic Biota Effects of Biology and Human Activity 454 Innovative Pens Hatch Thousands of Trout 458 Watershed 460 Combustible Watersheds 461 Time of Concentration and Travel Time in Watersheds 469 Watershed Hydrology 472 Watershed Management for Environmental Quality and Food Security 479 Water Hyacinth The World s Most Problematic Weed 479 Water Quality in Ponds 484 Water Turbine 487 Wetlands: Uses, Functions, and Values 489 Wetlands Overview 493 Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States 496 Urban Runoff 498 Urban Water Studies 501 Subglacial Lake Vostok 503 Water The Canadian Transporter 507 Flood Prevention 510 Effects of DDT in Surface Water on Bird Abundance and Reproduction A History 513 Instream Flow Methods 526 Floodplain 527 Fish Passage Facilities 529 Fishing Waters 532 Land Surface Modeling 533 Agricultural Water Animal Farming Operations: Groundwater Quality Issues 538 Aquaculture Technology for Producers 540 Biofuel Alternatives to Fossil Fuels 545 Soil Conservation 549 Landscape Water-Conservation Techniques 553 Crop Water Requirements 557 Agricultural Water Use Efficiency (WUE) and Productivity (WP) 558 Large Area Surface Energy Balance Estimation Using Satellite Imagery 560 Soil Erosion and Control Practices 565 Water Table Contribution to Crop Evapotranspiration 570 Crop Evapotranspiration 571 Water Pollution From Fish Farms 579 World s Major Irrigation Areas 581 Irrigation in The United States 586 Irrigation Wells 594 Agriculture and Land Use Planning 595 Waterlogging 599 Water Quality Management in an Agricultural Landscape 604 Classification and Mapping of Agricultural Land for National Water-Quality Assessment 608 Metal Tolerance in Plants: The Roles of Thiol-Containing Peptides 609 Microirrigation 615 Microirrigation: An Approach to Efficient Irrigation 620 Plant and Microorganism Selection for Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbons and Metals 628 Nitrate Pollution Prevention 637 Nitrification 640 Occurrence of Organochlorine Pesticides in Vegetables Grown on Untreated Soils from an Agricultural Watershed 643 Pesticide Chemistry in the Environment 647 Remediation of Pesticide-Contaminated Soil at Agrichemical Facilities 651 Pesticide Occurrence and Distribution in Relation to Use 655 Assessment of Pollution Outflow From Large Agricultural Areas 657 Deep-Well Turbine Pumps 664 Microbial Quality of Reclaimed Irrigation: International Perspective 667 Soil Salinity 673 Maintaining Salt Balance on Irrigated Land 677 Salt Tolerance 681 Groundwater Assessment Using Soil Sampling Techniques 688 Skimmed Groundwater 691 Soil Moisture Measurement Neutron 692 Soil N Management Impact on The Quality of Surface and Subsurface Water 694 Soil Phosphorus Availability and Its Impact on Surface Water Quality 701 Soil Water Issues 706 Water Spreading 708 Sprinkler Irrigation 712 Stomates 714 Crop Water Stress Detection Using Remote Sensing 719 Vacuum Gauge Tensiometer 724 Tile Drainage 729 Tile Drainage: Impacts, Plant Growth, and Water Table Levels 731 Measuring and Modeling Tree and Stand Level Transpiration 732 Water Logging: Topographic and Agricultural Impacts 741 Weed Control Strategies 742 Screen Filters for Microirrigation 748 Xeriscape 750 Media Filters for Microirrigation 752 Index 755