Water Quality Engineering: Physical/Chemical Treatment Processes

Water Quality Engineering: Physical/Chemical Treatment Processes

By: Desmond F. Lawler (author), Mark M. Benjamin (author)Hardback

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Description

Beginning with the generic means for investigating water to complex processes for the removal of soluble and particulate materials, Water Quality Engineering: Physical/Chemical Treatment Processes provides a comprehensive overview of the physical and chemical processes for treating water and wastewater. Author M. Benjamin describes the fundamental and mathematical theory behind water treatment methods and includes examples illustrating common calculations related to each process, as well as more concrete, real-world examples in each chapter. The text provides a theoretical underpinning of practice, making it a valuable reference for working environmental engineers.

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About Author

MARK M. BENJAMIN, PhD, is Professor of Environmental Engineering at the University of Washington. A Fulbright Fellow, Dr. Benjamin is an expert in physical and chemical treatment processes. His research examines the behavior of natural organic matter and its removal from potable water sources. Moreover, he has developed adsorption-based processes for the removal of metals, natural organic matter, and other contaminants from solutions. A major focus of his current research has been the membrane treatment of drinking water. DESMOND F. LAWLER, PhD, holds the Nasser I. Al-Rashid Chair in Civil Engineering at the University of Texas and is a member of the University's Distinguished Teaching Academy. Throughout his career, his research and teaching have focused on physical-chemical treatment processes. The research has emphasized particle removal in drinking water and wastewater but has also involved gas transfer, precipitation, oxidation, and desalination. Fourteen of his Ph.D. advisees hold academic positions, while his numerous M.S. research graduates work in consulting firms and government agencies.

Contents

PREFACE xxi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxv PART I REACTORS AND REACTIONS INWATER QUALITY ENGINEERING 1 Mass Balances 3 1.1 Introduction: The Mass Balance Concept 3 1.2 The Mass Balance for a System with Unidirectional Flow and Concentration Gradient 7 1.3 The Mass Balance for a System with Flow and Concentration Gradients in Arbitrary Directions 20 1.4 The Differential Form of the Three-Dimensional Mass Balance 24 1.5 Summary 25 2 Continuous Flow Reactors: Hydraulic Characteristics 29 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 Residence Time Distributions 30 2.3 Ideal Reactors 42 2.4 Nonideal Reactors 48 2.5 Equalization 62 2.6 Summary 70 3 Reaction Kinetics 81 3.1 Introduction 81 3.2 Fundamentals 82 3.3 Kinetics of Irreversible Reactions 88 3.4 Kinetics of Reversible Reactions 99 3.5 Kinetics of Sequential Reactions 107 3.6 The Temperature Dependence of the Rates of Nonelementary Reactions 114 3.7 Summary 115 4 Continuous Flow Reactors: Performance Characteristics with Reaction 121 4.1 Introduction 121 4.2 Extent of Reaction in Single Ideal Reactors at Steady State 121 4.3 Extent of Reaction in Systems Composed of Multiple Ideal Reactors at Steady State 130 4.4 Extent of Reaction in Reactors with Nonideal Flow 135 4.5 Extent of Reaction Under Non-Steady-Conditions in Continuous Flow Reactors 141 4.6 Summary 146 PART II REMOVAL OF DISSOLVED CONSTITUENTS FROM WATER 5 Gas Transfer Fundamentals 155 5.1 Introduction 155 5.2 Types of Engineered Gas Transfer Systems 159 5.3 Henry s Law and Gas/Liquid Equilibrium 162 5.4 Relating Changes in the Gas and Liquid Phases 170 5.5 Mechanistic Models for Gas Transfer 170 5.6 The Overall Gas Transfer Rate Coefficient KL 179 5.7 Evaluating kL kG KL and a: Effects of Hydrodynamic and Other Operating Conditions 187 5.8 Summary 196 6 Gas Transfer: Reactor Design and Analysis 207 6.1 Introduction 207 6.2 Case I: Gas Transfer in Systems with a Well-Mixed Liquid Phase 207 6.3 Case II: Gas Transfer in Systems with Spatial Variations in the Concentrations of Both Solution and Gas 226 6.4 Summary 241 7 Adsorption Processes: Fundamentals 257 7.1 Introduction 257 7.2 Examples of Adsorption in Natural and Engineered Aquatic Systems 262 7.3 Conceptual Molecular-Scale Models for Adsorption 266 7.4 Quantifying the Activity of Adsorbed Species and Adsorption Equilibrium Constants 268 7.5 Quantitative Representations of Adsorption Equilibrium: The Adsorption Isotherm 269 7.6 Modeling Adsorption Using Surface Pressure to Describe the Activity of Adsorbed Species 296 7.7 The Polanyi Adsorption Model and the Polanyi Isotherm 306 7.8 Modeling Other Interactions and Reactions at Surfaces 314 7.9 Summary 320 8 Adsorption Processes: Reactor Design and Analysis 327 8.1 Introduction 327 8.2 Systems with Rapid Attainment of Equilibrium 328 8.3 Systems with a Slow Approach to Equilibrium 340 8.4 The Movement of the Mass Transfer Zone Through Fixed Bed Adsorbers 354 8.5 Chemical Reactions in Fixed Bed Adsorption Systems 356 8.6 Estimating Long-Term Full-Scale Performance of Fixed Beds from Short-Term Bench-Scale Experimental Data 357 8.7 Competitive Adsorption in Column Operations: The Chromatographic Effect 359 8.8 Adsorbent Regeneration 365 8.9 Design Options and Operating Strategies for Fixed Bed Reactors 366 8.10 Summary 369 References 371 Problems 371 9 Precipitation and Dissolution Processes 379 9.1 Introduction 379 9.2 Fundamentals of Precipitation Processes 380 9.3 Precipitation Dynamics: Particle Nucleation and Growth 384 9.4 Modeling Solution Composition in Precipitation Reactions 394 9.5 Stoichiometric and Equilibrium Models for Precipitation Reactions 397 9.6 Solid Dissolution Reactions 422 9.7 Reactors for Precipitation Reactions 426 9.8 Summary 428 10 Redox Processes and Disinfection 435 10.1 Introduction 435 10.2 Basic Principles and Overview 435 10.3 Oxidative Processes Involving Common Oxidants 441 10.4 Advanced Oxidation Processes 469 10.5 Reductive Processes 486 10.6 Electrochemical Processes 488 10.7 Disinfection 488 10.8 Summary 502 PART III REMOVAL OF PARTICLES FROM WATER 11 Particle Treatment Processes: Common Elements 519 11.1 Introduction 519 11.2 Particle Stability 521 11.3 Chemicals Commonly Used for Destabilization 532 11.4 Particle Destabilization 535 11.5 Interactions of Destabilizing Chemicals with Soluble Materials 542 11.6 Mixing of Chemicals into the Water Stream 544 11.7 Particle Size Distributions 546 11.8 Particle Shape 551 11.9 Particle Density 552 11.10 Fractal Nature of Flocs 552 11.11 Summary 553 12 Flocculation 563 12.1 Introduction 563 12.2 Changes in Particle Size Distributions by Flocculation 564 12.3 Flocculation Modeling 565 12.4 Collision Frequency: Long-Range Force Model 572 12.5 Collision Efficiency: Short-Range Force Model 581 12.6 Turbulence and Turbulent Flocculation 589 12.7 Floc Breakup 592 12.8 Modeling of Flocculation with Fractal Dimensions 594 12.9 Summary 596 13 Gravity Separations 603 13.1 Introduction 603 13.2 Engineered Systems for Gravity Separations 605 13.3 Sedimentation of Individual Particles 607 13.4 Batch Sedimentation: Type I 612 13.5 Batch Sedimentation: Type II 618 13.6 Continuous Flow Ideal Settling 622 13.7 Effects of Nonideal Flow on Sedimentation Reactor Performance 639 13.8 Thickening 644 13.9 Flotation 655 13.10 Summary 669 14 Granular Media Filtration 677 14.1 Introduction 677 14.2 ATypical Filter Run 680 14.3 General Mathematical Description of Particle Removal: Iwasaki s Model 683 14.4 Clean Bed Removal 684 14.5 Predicted Clean Bed Removal in Standard Water and Wastewater Treatment Filters 694 14.6 Head Loss in a Clean Filter Bed 698 14.7 Filtration Dynamics: Experimental Findings of Changes with Time 700 14.8 Models of Filtration Dynamics 709 14.9 Filter Cleaning 714 14.10 Summary 717 PART IV MEMBRANE-BASED WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT 15 Membrane Processes 731 15.1 Introduction 731 15.2 Overview of Membrane System Operation 732 15.3 Membranes Modules and the Mechanics of Membrane Treatment 734 15.4 Parameters Used to Describe Membrane Systems 742 15.5 Overview of Pressure-Driven Membrane Systems 749 15.6 Quantifying Driving Forces in Membrane Systems 752 15.7 Quantitative Modeling of Pressure-Driven Membrane Systems 759 15.8 Modeling Transport of Water and Contaminants From Bulk Solution to the Surface of Pressure-Driven Membranes 773 15.9 Effects of Crossflow on Permeation and Fouling 792 15.10 Electrodialysis 816 15.11 Modeling Dense Membrane Systems Using Irreversible Thermodynamics 834 15.12 Summary 838 INDEX 847

Product Details

  • publication date: 09/08/2013
  • ISBN13: 9781118169650
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 904
  • ID: 9781118169650
  • weight: 2298
  • ISBN10: 1118169654

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