This book draws on twenty-four academic disciplines to provide a critical analysis of some 100 theories that explain the origins, nature, and management of human conflict. The book treats intellectual, individual, moral, interpersonal, organizational, community, political, and international conflicts. It suggests six criteria for distinguishing good from bad theory and discusses how existing theories may be used and improved.
David Churchman is professor emeritus at California State University, where he held appointments as professor of humanities and as a chairman and professor of behavioral science graduate programs where he taught the course on which this book is based. He has been an infantry officer, a Fulbright scholar in Cyprus and Ukraine, a Malone scholar in Saudi Arabia, a National Science Foundation program officer, and an exotic animal trainer. He co-founded and was the treasurer of Wildlife on Wheels, a nonprofit organization and federally licensed zoo that provided live animal education programs and rescued animals from oil spills. He is the author of Negotiation: Process, Tactics, Theory (University Press of America, 1995).
Preface Acknowledgments 1. Criteria for Good Theory Useful Empirical Logical Falsifiable Parsimonious Generalizable 2. Conflict Analysis Three major roles for Mathematics in Conflict Theory Risk Prisoners' Dilemma Bayes's Theorem Lattice Theory Pareto Optimization Strategic Choice Fair Division 3. The Nature of Man Aggression Early Man Biology of Aggression Sociobiology Aggression in Primates 4. Aggression and the Mind Aggression as Instinct Frustration-Aggression Aggression as Learned Behavior Human Needs Theory Psychiatric Theories 5. Intellectual Conflict Man History Society Nature God The Importance of Dissent 6. Moral Conflict The Origins of Morality Individual Moral Development Four Forms of Moral Conflict Managing Moral Conflicts 7. Interpersonal Conflict Personality and Conflict Personality Types and their Measurement The "Generation Gap" Low Conflict Societies Family Conflict Dual Variable Models Power Linguistic Models of Communications Systems Models of Communication Social Models of Communication Culture and Interpersonal Conflicts 8. Gender Conflict Discrimination Communication Style Sexual Harassment Relational Aggression Women in Peace and War The Matriarchal Past 9. Organizational Conflict Organizational Development Labor-Management Conflict Leadership Crisis Management Competitive Strategy Law of Unintended Consequences 10. Community Conflict Class Conflict Ethnic Conflict Gangs Hostage Crises Conflict and Stress Wisdom of Crowds 11. Political Conflict Governmental Systems Deliberative Assemblies Voting Systems Redistricting Vote Fraud Tax Systems Tragedy of the Commons and the Free Rider Problem 12. Causes of War Reproductive Success Ecological Equilibrium Territorial Imperative Relative Deprivation Nation-States Characteristics of States Number of Bordering State Polarity Human Rights Arms Races Correlates of War Expected Utility 13. Just War in Eight Cultures The Roman Catholic Tradition The Greek Orthodox Tradition The Jewish Tradition The Muslim Tradition The Hindu Tradition The Buddhist Tradition The Chinese Tradition The Japanese Tradition Just War Today 14. Interstate Conflict Origins of War Types of War Strategic and Tactical Theory Strategic Geography 15. Asymmetric Conflict Economic Warfare Humanitarian War Guerilla or Low Intensity Warfare Terrorism Counter-terrorism Piracy Cyber Warfare Lawfare 16. The Search for Peace What is Peace? Diplomacy Track II Diplomacy Department of Peace Arms Control vs. Peace through Strength Balance of Power World Government and Peacekeeping Pacifism and Nonviolence Reconciliation Is Mankind Becoming Increasingly Peaceful? 17. Dispute Resolution Torts Negotiation Distributive Negotiation Integrative Negotiation Third-Party Interventions Large-scale Third Party Intervention The Agreement Circumplex 18. Putting Conflict Theory to Use 19. Improving Conflict Theory Appendix: Major Fallacies in Logic Bibliography Index Author Biography