Wildlife Forensics: Methods and Applications (Developments in Forensic Science)

Wildlife Forensics: Methods and Applications (Developments in Forensic Science)

By: John R. Wallace (author), Jane E. Huffman (author)Paperback

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Description

Wildlife Forensics: Methods and Applications provides an accessible and practical approach to the key areas involved in this developing subject. The book contains case studies throughout the text that take the reader from the field, to the lab analysis to the court room, giving a complete insight into the path of forensic evidence and demonstrating how current techniques can be applied to wildlife forensics. The book contains approaches that wildlife forensic investigators and laboratory technicians can employ in investigations and provides the direction and practical advice required by legal and police professionals seeking to gain the evidence needed to prosecute wildlife crimes. The book will bring together in one text various aspects of wildlife forensics, including statistics, toxicology, pathology, entomology, morphological identification, and DNA analysis. This book will be an invaluable reference and will provide investigators, laboratory technicians and students in forensic Science/conservation biology classes with practical guidance and best methods for criminal investigations applied to wildlife crime. * Includes practical techniques that wildlife forensic investigators and laboratory technicians can employ in investigations. * Includes case studies to illustrate various key methods and applications. * Brings together diverse areas of forensic science and demonstrates their application specifically to the field of wildlife crime. * Contains methodology boxes to lead readers through the processes of individual techniques. * Takes an applied approach to the subject to appeal to both students of the subject and practitioners in the field. * Includes a broad introduction to what is meant by 'wildlife crime', how to approach a crime scene and collect evidence and includes chapters dedicated to the key techniques utilized in wildlife investigations. * Includes chapters on wildlife forensic pathology; zooanthropological techniques; biological trace evidence analysis; the importance of bitemark evidence; plant and wildlife forensics; best practices and law enforcement.

About Author

Dr. Jane Huffman, Ph.D. is the director of the Northeast Wildlife DNA Laboratory at East Stroudsburg University, where her work focuses on the application of genetic methods to wildlife law enforcement and conservation management. She runs wildlife DNA forensic training courses for conservation officers from New Jersey and Pennsylvania. She, along with her students, has undertaken a wide range of applied research projects including the development of DNA profiling systems for game species in PA and NJ and microscopic hair characterization. The laboratory provides species identification tests for illegally sold wild meat. She provides forensic analysis and expert witness testimony in PA wildlife crime prosecutions. Dr. Huffman is also the graduate student coordinator for the Department of Biological Sciences at East Stroudsburg University. Dr. John R. Wallace, Ph.D., D-ABFE, F-AAFS, is one of 15 board-certified forensic entomologists and a diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Entomology. Dr. Wallace is a Professor of Biology and focuses on teaching courses in Entomology, Aquatic Biology, Aquatic Entomology, Forensic Entomology, Forensic Science, and Ecology and Evolution. His research interests cover topics such as mosquito and disease ecology as well as mosquito and blackfly surveillance, and the role of aquatic organisms such as insects, algae and crayfish on decomposition within forensic science. As a forensic entomologist, Dr. Wallace has participated in criminal investigations all over the country since 1995. He has taught forensic entomology courses at the University level and workshops at various universities to law enforcement throughout the United States, published more than 45 articles or book chapters in National/International journals. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Science and an active member since 2002. Dr. Wallace is a co-founder and past President of the North American Forensic Entomology Association (NAFEA) in 2005 as well as the editor-elect for the NAFEA newsletter.

Contents

Developments in Forensic Science xiii About the Editors xv List of Contributors xvii Foreword xxiii Acknowledgements xxv 1 Wildlife Ownership 1 Eric G. Roscoe and Michael McMaster Introduction 1 Ancient Rome and the Concept of Res Nullius 2 Common Law England: The King s Ownership 3 The New World: Hunting for the Market 5 Management: The Property Right of States 8 Federal Law and the Regulatory State 10 Globalization: Working toward Worldwide Conservation Practices 11 Conclusion 13 Cases Cited 13 References 13 2 Society for Wildlife Forensic Science 15 DeeDee Hawk Introduction 15 Formation of the Society 19 The Code of Ethics 22 Membership of the Society 24 Member Labs 25 Proficiency Program 25 Scientific Working Group for Wildlife Forensic Sciences (SWGWILD) 29 Conclusion 32 References 33 3 The Application of Forensic Science to Wildlife Evidence 35 John R. Wallace and Jill C. Ross Introduction 35 Overview of Forensic Science 37 Enforcement of Wildlife Protection Policy 44 Development of Wildlife Forensic Laboratories 45 Current Perceptions 47 Conclusion 48 Acknowledgements 49 References 49 4 Defining a Crime Scene and Physical Evidence Collection 51 Jason H. Byrd and Lerah K. Sutton Introduction 51 Definition of a Crime Scene 51 Questions to Be Asked 52 Scene Priority 52 First Responding Officer 53 Securing the Scene 53 Chain of Custody 55 Processing the Scene 55 Initial Documentation 56 Scene Documentation 58 Remains in an Aquatic Environment 60 Collection of Evidence 61 Review of Scene Processing 62 Final Inspection 62 References 63 5 Forensic Evidence Collection and Cultural Motives for Animal Harvesting 65 Michelle D. Hamilton and Elizabeth M. Erhart Introduction 65 Wild Animals as Pharmacopeias 66 Trade in Wild Animals 67 Recovering Evidence at Poaching Scenes 68 Locating the Burial: Anomalies on the Surface 71 Acknowledgements 76 References 76 6 Forensic Entomology and Wildlife 81 Jeffery K. Tomberlin and Michelle R. Sanford Introduction 81 Application of Forensic Entomology to Wildlife Crimes 82 Arthropods Commonly Encountered 86 Diptera 88 Coleoptera 95 Sampling 98 Conclusion 100 Appendix 101 Acknowledgements 102 References 102 7 Wildlife Forensic Pathology and Toxicology in Wound Analysis and Pesticide Poisoning 109 Douglas E. Roscoe and William Stansley Introduction 109 Wound Analysis 109 Wildlife Poisoning by Insecticides 121 Wildlife Poisoning by Rodenticides 123 References 125 8 The Use of Hair Morphology in the Identification of Mammals 129 Lisa Knecht Introduction 129 Types of Hair 130 Hair Structure 131 Techniques for Studying Hair Structure 140 Conclusion 142 References 142 9 Plants and Wildlife Forensics 145 Christopher R. Hardy and David S. Martin Introduction 145 Plants as Trace Evidence 145 Poisonous Plants 149 The Basics of Collecting and Preserving Botanical Evidence 153 Finding a Forensic Botanist 156 Conclusion 156 Acknowledgements 157 References 157 10 Identification of Reptile Skin Products Using Scale Morphology 161 David L. Martin Introduction 161 International Trade in Reptile Skins 162 Challenges to Species Identification of Reptile Skin Products 166 Species and Products Represented in the Reptile Skin Trade 168 Reptile Scale Morphology Basics and Current Limitations 170 Identifying Features of Major Reptile Groups 178 Conclusion 194 Acknowledgements 195 References 195 11 Best Practices in Wildlife Forensic DNA 201 M. Katherine Moore and Irving L. Kornfield Introduction 201 The Need for Appropriate Standards 203 Wildlife Forensic DNA Best Practices 206 Standards and Guidelines for Wildlife Forensics 206 Training 208 Case File 209 Laboratory Facility (QA) 213 Validation 214 Laboratory Protocols 216 Data Analysis 218 Interpretation Guidelines 220 Vouchers/Reference Samples 221 Species Identification 224 Reporting 224 Contents of the Case Report 225 Review 226 Court Testimony 229 The Way Forward 230 Note 230 Acknowledgements 230 References 231 12 Statistics for Wildlife Forensic DNA 237 B.S. Weir Introduction 237 The Central Problem 238 Genetic Sampling 241 Lineage Markers 242 Relatedness 245 Inbreeding 247 Testing for Allele Independence 248 Assignment testing 250 Conclusion 251 References 252 13 Forensic DNA Analysis of Wildlife Evidence 253 Sabrina N. McGraw, Shamus P. Keeler, and Jane E. Huffman Introduction 253 DNA Isolation and Handling 254 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 255 Sample Speciation 256 Minisatellites (VNTRs) 256 Mitochondrial Markers (mtDNA) 257 Additional Genetic Speciation Methods 259 Limitations of Genetic Speciation 260 Sample Sexing 261 Sample Individualization 262 Sample Localization 263 Validation of Wildlife Forensic Techniques 264 Court Admissibility 266 Conclusion 266 Cases Cited 266 References 267 14 DNA Applications and Implementation 271 Robert Ogden Introduction 271 History 272 Questions and Techniques: Wildlife Crime Issues 272 Species Identification 273 Identification of Geographic Origin 275 Individual Identification 279 Exclusion 280 Practical Applications 282 Sample Types for DNA Analysis 282 Laboratory Models: Individual Facilities 283 Future Developments 287 Summary 288 References 289 15 Conservation Genetics and Wildlife Forensics of Birds 293 Rebecca N. Johnson Introduction 293 Avian Genetics 295 Avian Taxonomy, Legislation and Conservation 299 Avian Wildlife Forensics: A Range of Applications 302 Conservation Genetics and Wildlife Forensics: Identification Using DNA 307 Conclusion 315 References 317 16 Wildlife Forensics in Thailand: Utilization of Mitochondrial DNA Sequences 327 Suchitra Changtragoon Introduction 327 DNA Extraction and Amplification 327 DNA Sequencing 328 Origin Identification 328 Species and Subspecies Identification 328 Results of the Investigations 330 Conclusion 338 Acknowledgements 341 References 341 17 The Future of Wildlife Forensic Science 343 Edgard O. Espinoza, Jesica L. Espinoza, Pepper W. Trail, and Barry W. Baker Introduction 343 Technical Challenges 344 Enhancing Wildlife Protection by Integrating Forensic Science and the Law 350 The U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Limits of Science 351 The Future of Forensic Scientists and the Laboratories in which They Work 353 Conclusion 355 Acknowledgments 356 References 356 Index 359

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470662595
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 396
  • ID: 9780470662595
  • weight: 608
  • ISBN10: 047066259X

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