Of all France's black African migrants, 85 per cent are Soninke from one area of West Africa. This study of their migration to Europe challenges the view that they were coerced by colonial tax and violence and claims that the evidence shows rather that they were indeed willing migrants.
North America: Ohio U Press
In rememberance of Francois Manchuelle, 1953-1996, Martin A. King; select bibliography of works by Francois Manchuelle; Soninke society and migration (19th century); from traditional to modern migration (1822-1855); taxation and the Soninke economy (1855-1885); a time of troubles (1880-1894); Soninke migrant networks and social change (1895-1914); myths and realities of colonial migration (1914-1930); the shift to urban migration (1930s-1960).