Historically employed to estimate and measure the likely material requirements for any building project, the role of the modern quantity surveyor is diverse, with a wide range of employers and geographical locations to match. Change continues to be a feature in quantity surveying practice, with the New Rules of Measurement, the RICS Black Book and Building Information Modelling (BIM) all adding to the already dynamic environment in which the Quantity Surveyor operates. This new edition of Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor reflects that dynamic environment, addressing changing practices and procedures in the profession, whilst focussing on the core skills which are essential to success.
The 13th edition of this classic text, originally written by three generations of the Willis family (all quantity surveyors) continues to provide a thorough introduction to the work of the quantity surveyor in private practice, in public service and in contracting organisations.
Allan Ashworth DUniv (Hon), MSc, MRICS is a Visiting Professor at the University of Salford and the Adjunct Professor in Quantity Surveying at UTAR in Malaysia. He is a former HMI (Her Majesty's Inspector) in the Department for Education and Employment and the Senior Academic Advisor to the Centre for Education in the Built Environment based at the University of Salford. Keith Hogg BSc, PGCE was, until his recent retirement, Associate Dean (Development) in the School of the Built Environment at Northumbria University. He worked in private practice in the UK and overseas and engaged in research and practise in areas of risk management and value management. Throughout much of his career he was closely involved with the RICS in areas of Quantity Surveying Practice and Surveying Education. Catherine Higgs MSc, MRICS is a Senior Lecturer in Quantity Surveying and Associate Head of the Department of Construction and Property at the University of the West of England, Bristol. She is also a UWE Teaching Fellow with a strong interest in the pedagogy of quantity surveying practice.
Preface xi 1 The Work of the Quantity Surveyor 1 Introduction 1 A changing industry 3 Construction sectors 6 The role of the quantity surveyor 8 Skills, knowledge and understanding 15 What's in a name?18 Discussion topic20 References and bibliography 23 2 Education, Training and Employment 24 Introduction24 Chronology of quantity surveying education 1960-201224 Quantity surveyors in education 27 Partnership and accreditation 28 Non-cognate disciplines 30 National vocational qualifications (NVQs) Vocational experience and qualifications 30 Assessment of professional competence (APC) 31 Continuing professional development (CPD) 32 Construction Industry Council (CIC) 33 Changing work patterns 34 The professions 44 Role of the RICS 48 Discussion topic 50 References and bibliography 52 3 Organisation and Management 53 Introduction 53 Staffing 53 Office organisation 55 Employer's responsibilities 57 Public relations and marketing 61 Quality management 63 Time and cost management 65 Education and training Developing staff 66 Finance and accounts 68 Discussion topic 73 References and bibliography 77 4 The Quantity Surveyor and the Law 78 Introduction 78 The quantity surveyor and the client 78 Collateral warranties 85 Performance bonds 87 Professional indemnity insurance 88 Contracts of employment 88 The Disability Discrimination Act 2004 Equality Act 2010 90 Discussion topic 91 References and bibliography 93 5 Research and Innovation 95 Introduction 95 RICS 96 Classification of research and development 97 Research and development in the construction and property industries 98 Rethinking construction innovation and research 99 Changing role of the quantity surveyor 102 Research and development in quantity surveying practice 103 Academic research 106 Research dissemination 107 Information and communication technologies (ICTs) 107 Quantity surveying practice 108 Major ICT issues 110 The future of ICT 112 The importance of change 112 Innovation 114 Conclusions 116 Discussion topic 117 References and bibliography 119 6 Cost Control 121 Introduction 121 Project cost control 121 Cost advice 122 Precontract methods 123 General considerations 127 Accuracy of approximate estimates 130 Preparing the approximate estimate 130 Whole life costing 131 Value management 132 Risk analysis 132 Best value 132 Taxation 133 Financial assistance for development 136 Post-contract methods 138 Discussion topic 141 References and bibliography 144 7 Whole Life Costing 146 Introduction 146 Brief history 147 Government policy 147 Whole life value 148 Whole life costing applications 149 Whole life costs 151 Main factors to consider 152 Targeting the major elements of costs-in-use 154 Depreciation and obsolescence in buildings 154 Long life, loose fit and low energy 155 Calculations 155 Forecasting the future 157 Whole life cost forum (WLCF) 160 Conclusions 161 Discussion topic 161 References and bibliography 164 8 Value Management 166 Introduction 166 Background 167 Terminology 167 When should surveyors use value management? 168 The application of value management 171 Functional analysis 178 Supporting the case for value management 183 Professional development and accreditation 185 Discussion topic 186 References and bibliography 189 9 Risk Management 190 Introduction 190 When should surveyors use risk management? 191 The application of risk management 194 Risk analysis 195 Risk registers 197 Expected monetary value (EMV) 200 Simulation (quantitative risk analysis) 200 Risk management 203 Appraisal of risk management options 206 Considerations in risk allocation 207 Merging risk management and value management opportunity? 208 Discussion topic 209 References and bibliography 213 10 Procurement 215 Introduction 215 General matters 216 Standards forms of contract 218 Methods of price determination 219 Contractor selection and appointment 221 Procurement options 226 Contract strategy 232 Client procurement needs 233 Partnering 234 The Private Finance Initiative (PFI) 237 The role of the quantity surveyor 237 Discussion topic 238 References and bibliography 241 11 Contract Documentation 243 Contract documents 243 Coordinated project information 244 Form of contract 245 Contract drawings 247 Schedules 247 Contract bills 248 Methods of measurement 251 Contract specification 252 Schedules of work rates 253 Master programme 254 Information release schedule 254 Discrepancies in documents 254 Discussion topic 254 References and bibliography 257 12 Preparation of Contract Bills 258 Appointment of the quantity surveyor 258 Receipt of drawings 259 Taking-off 261 Contract bills 265 Invitation to tender Preliminary enquiry 269 Receipt of tenders 274 E-tendering 280 Discussion topic 281 References and bibliography 283 13 Cost Management 285 Introduction 285 Valuations 286 Valuation on insolvency 302 Cost control and reporting 302 Discussion topic 306 References and bibliography 309 14 Final Accounts 310 Introduction 310 Variations 311 Procedure for measurement and evaluation 313 Pricing variations 316 Provisional sums 321 Fluctuations 323 Completing the account 327 Audit 328 Timing and resources 330 Discussion topic 331 References and bibliography 334 15 Insolvency 335 Introduction 335 The role of the quantity surveyor 337 Scenario 338 The role of the liquidator 339 The law 340 Determination of contract (contractor insolvency) 340 Provision in the forms of contract 341 Factors to consider at insolvency 342 Completion of the contract 344 The employer's loss 345 Expenditure involved 345 Termination of contract (employer insolvency) 346 Insolvency of the quantity surveyor or architect 348 Performance bonds 348 Discussion topic 349 References and bibliography 352 16 Contractual Disputes 353 Introduction 353 Why disputes arise 353 Litigation 355 Arbitration 356 Adjudication 358 Alternative dispute resolution 358 Expert witness 361 Lay advocacy 362 Claims 363 Discussion topic 370 References and bibliography 373 17 Project Management 375 Introduction 375 Justifying project management by adding value 376 Terminology 377 Attributes of the project manager 378 Duties and responsibilities of the project manager 385 Quantity surveying skills and expertise 391 Fees 391 Education and training for the project manager 392 Discussion topic 393 References and bibliography 396 18 Facilities Management 398 Introduction 398 The work of the facilities manager 399 Sustainability 413 Facilities management opportunities for the quantity surveyor 415 Education and training for the facilities manager 417 Discussion topic 417 References and bibliography 420 19 Emergent Themes: Sustainability and BIM Introduction Background Measures of sustainability Quantity surveying and sustainability Zero carbon Building Information Modeling (BIM) BIM use within the industry Discussion topic References and Bibliography Index 423