Wireless Communications

Wireless Communications

By: Prof. Keith Q. T. Zhang (author)Hardback

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"Provides the reader with an overall picture of wireless communications, carefully expounds its technical details, not only covering a variety of main results and conclusions but also revealing the methodology used for their derivations"--

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Contents

Preface xvii Acknowledgments xix 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Resources for wireless communications 3 1.2 Shannon s theory 3 1.3 Three challenges 4 1.4 Digital modulation versus coding 5 1.5 Philosophy to combat interference 6 1.6 Evolution of processing strategy 7 1.7 Philosophy to exploit two-dimensional random fields 7 1.8 Cellular: Concept, Evolution, and 5G 8 1.9 The structure of this book 10 1.10 Repeatedly used abbreviations and math symbols 10 Problems 12 References 12 2 Mathematical Background 14 2.1 Introduction 14 2.2 Congruence mapping and signal spaces 14 2.3 Estimation methods 19 2.3.1 Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) 20 2.3.2 Maximum a posteriori estimation 21 2.4 Commonly used distributions in wireless 21 2.4.1 Chi-square distributions 21 2.4.2 Gamma distribution 25 2.4.3 Nakagami distribution 26 2.4.4 Wishart distribution 26 2.5 The calculus of variations 28 2.6 Two inequalities for optimization 29 2.6.1 Inequality for Rayleigh quotient 29 2.6.2 Hadamard inequality 29 2.7 Q-function 30 2.8 The CHF method and its skilful applications 32 2.8.1 Gil-Pelaez s lemma 32 2.8.2 Random variables in denominators 32 2.8.3 Parseval s theorem 33 2.9 Matrix operations and differentiation 33 2.9.1 Decomposition of a special determinant 33 2.9.2 Higher order derivations 33 2.9.3 Kronecker product 34 2.10 Additional reading 34 Problems 34 References 35 3 Channel Characterization 37 3.1 Introduction 37 3.2 Large-scale propagation loss 38 3.2.1 Free-space propagation 39 3.2.2 Average large-scale path loss in mobile 40 3.2.3 Okumura s model 40 3.2.4 Hata s model 42 3.2.5 JTC air model 42 3.3 Lognormal shadowing 43 3.4 Multipath characterization for local behavior 44 3.4.1 An equivalent bandwidth 44 3.4.2 Temporal evolution of path coefficients 49 3.4.3 Statistical description of local fluctuation 50 3.4.4 Complex Gaussian distribution 50 3.4.5 Nakagami fading 51 3.4.6 Clarke Jakes model 52 3.5 Composite model to incorporate multipath and shadowing 53 3.6 Example to illustrate the use of various models 54 3.6.1 Static design 54 3.6.2 Dynamic design 55 3.6.3 Large-scale design 56 3.7 Generation of correlated fading channels 56 3.7.1 Rayleigh fading with given covariance structure 56 3.7.2 Correlated Nakagami fading 57 3.7.3 Complex correlated Nakagami channels 62 3.7.4 Correlated lognormal shadowing 62 3.7.5 Fitting a lognormal sum 64 3.8 Summary 65 3.9 Additional reading 66 Problems 66 References 68 4 Digital Modulation 70 4.1 Introduction 70 4.2 Signals and signal space 71 4.3 Optimal MAP and ML receivers 72 4.4 Detection of two arbitrary waveforms 74 4.5 MPSK 77 4.5.1 BPSK 77 4.5.2 QPSK 79 4.5.3 MPSK 81 4.6 M-ary QAM 85 4.7 Noncoherent scheme differential MPSK 88 4.7.1 Differential BPSK 88 4.7.2 Differential MPSK 89 4.7.3 Connection to MPSK 89 4.8 MFSK 90 4.8.1 BFSK with coherent detection 90 4.9 Noncoherent MFSK 92 4.10 Bit error probability versus symbol error probability 93 4.10.1 Orthogonal MFSK 93 4.10.2 Square M-QAM 93 4.10.3 Gray-mapped MPSK 94 4.11 Spectral efficiency 96 4.12 Summary of symbol error probability for various schemes 97 4.13 Additional reading 98 Problems 98 References 102 5 Minimum Shift Keying 103 5.1 Introduction 103 5.2 MSK 104 5.3 de Buda s approach 105 5.3.1 The basic idea and key equations 105 5.4 Properties of MSK signals 106 5.5 Understanding MSK 108 5.5.1 MSK as FSK 108 5.5.2 MSK as offset PSK 109 5.6 Signal space 109 5.7 MSK power spectrum 110 5.8 Alternative scheme differential encoder 113 5.9 Transceivers for MSK signals 115 5.10 Gaussian-shaped MSK 116 5.11 Massey s approach to MSK 117 5.11.1 Modulation 117 5.11.2 Receiver structures and error performance 117 5.12 Summary 119 Problems 119 References 120 6 Channel Coding 121 6.1 Introduction and philosophical discussion 121 6.2 Preliminary of Galois fields 123 6.2.1 Fields 123 6.2.2 Galois fields 124 6.2.3 The primitive element of GF(q) 124 6.2.4 Construction of GF(q) 124 6.3 Linear block codes 126 6.3.1 Syndrome test 129 6.3.2 Error-correcting capability 132 6.4 Cyclic codes 134 6.4.1 The order of elements: a concept in GF(q) 134 6.4.2 Cyclic codes 136 6.4.3 Generator, parity check, and syndrome polynomial 137 6.4.4 Systematic form 138 6.4.5 Syndrome and decoding 140 6.5 Golay code 141 6.6 BCH codes 141 6.6.1 Generating BCH codes 142 6.6.2 Decoding BCH codes 143 6.7 Convolutional codes 146 6.7.1 Examples 146 6.7.2 Code generation 147 6.7.3 Markovian property 148 6.7.4 Decoding with hard-decision Viterbi algorithm 150 6.7.5 Transfer function 152 6.7.6 Choice of convolutional codes 155 6.7.7 Philosophy behind decoding strategies 156 6.7.8 Error performance of convolutional decoding 160 6.8 Trellis-coded modulation 162 6.9 Summary 166 Problems 166 References 170 7 Diversity Techniques 171 7.1 Introduction 171 7.2 Idea behind diversity 173 7.3 Structures of various diversity combiners 174 7.3.1 MRC 174 7.3.2 EGC 175 7.3.3 SC 176 7.4 PDFs of output SNR 176 7.4.1 MRC 176 7.4.2 EGC 178 7.4.3 SC 178 7.5 Average SNR comparison for various schemes 179 7.5.1 MRC 179 7.5.2 EGC 180 7.5.3 SC 181 7.6 Methods for error performance analysis 182 7.6.1 The chain rule 182 7.6.2 The CHF method 183 7.7 Error probability of MRC 183 7.7.1 Error performance in nondiversity Rayleigh fading 183 7.7.2 MRC in i.i.d. Rayleigh fading 185 7.7.3 MRC in correlated Rayleigh fading 187 7.7.4 Pe for generic channels 188 7.8 Error probability of EGC 189 7.8.1 Closed-form solution to order-3 EGC 189 7.8.2 General EGC error performance 191 7.8.3 Diversity order of EGC 192 7.9 Average error performance of SC in Rayleigh fading 193 7.9.1 Pure SC 193 7.9.2 Generalized SC 195 7.10 Performance of diversity MDPSK systems 196 7.10.1 Nondiversity MDPSK in Rayleigh fading 196 7.10.2 Remarks on use of the chain rule 199 7.10.3 Linear prediction to fit the chain rule 199 7.10.4 Alternative approach for diversity MDPSK 200 7.11 Noncoherent MFSK with diversity reception 201 7.12 Summary 203 Problems 204 References 206 8 Processing Strategies for Wireless Systems 209 8.1 Communication problem 209 8.2 Traditional strategy 210 8.3 Paradigm of orthogonality 211 8.4 Turbo processing principle 211 Problems 213 References 213 9 Channel Equalization 214 9.1 Introduction 214 9.2 Pulse shaping for ISI-free transmission 215 9.3 ISI and equalization strategies 216 9.4 Zero-forcing equalizer 217 9.4.1 Orthogonal projection 217 9.4.2 ZFE 219 9.4.3 Equivalent discrete ZFE receiver 221 9.5 MMSE linear equalizer 225 9.6 Decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) 227 9.7 SNR comparison and error performance 229 9.8 An example 230 9.9 Spectral factorization 233 9.10 Summary 234 Problems 234 References 236 10 Channel Decomposition Techniques 238 10.1 Introduction 238 10.2 Channel matrix of ISI channels 239 10.3 Idea of channel decomposition 239 10.4 QR-decomposition-based Tomlinson Harashima equalizer 240 10.5 The GMD equalizer 242 10.6 OFDM for time-invariant channel 243 10.6.1 Channel SVD 243 10.6.2 OFDM: a multicarrier modulation technique 244 10.6.3 PAPR and statistical behavior of OFDM 246 10.6.4 Combating PAPR 247 10.7 Cyclic prefix and circulant channel matrix 248 10.8 OFDM receiver 251 10.9 Channel estimation 251 10.10 Coded OFDM 252 10.11 Additional reading 252 Problems 252 References 254 11 Turbo Codes and Turbo Principle 257 11.1 Introduction and philosophical discussion 257 11.1.1 Generation of random-like long codes 258 11.1.2 The turbo principle 259 11.2 Two-device mechanism for iteration 259 11.3 Turbo codes 261 11.3.1 A turbo encoder 261 11.3.2 RSC versus NRC 261 11.3.3 Turbo codes with two constituent RSC encoders 264 11.4 BCJR algorithm 266 11.5 Turbo decoding 270 11.6 Illustration of turbo-code performance 270 11.7 Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts 272 11.8 Convergence and fixed points 276 11.9 Statistics of LLRs 277 11.9.1 Mean and variance of LLRs 277 11.9.2 Mean and variance of hard decision 277 11.10 Turbo equalization 278 11.11 Turbo CDMA 281 11.12 Turbo IDMA 283 11.13 Summary 283 Problems 284 References 287 12 Multiple-Access Channels 289 12.1 Introduction 289 12.2 Typical MA schemes 291 12.3 User space of multiple-access 292 12.3.1 User spaces for TDMA 293 12.3.2 User space for CDMA 294 12.3.3 User space for MC-CDMA 294 12.3.4 MC-DS-CDMA 295 12.3.5 User space for OFDMA 296 12.3.6 Unified framework for orthogonal multiaccess schemes 297 12.4 Capacity of multiple-access channels 298 12.4.1 Flat fading 299 12.4.2 Frequency-selective fading 300 12.5 Achievable MI by various MA schemes 301 12.5.1 AWGN channel 301 12.5.2 Flat-fading MA channels 304 12.6 CDMA-IS-95 306 12.6.1 Forward link 306 12.6.2 Reverse link 308 12.7 Processing gain of spreading spectrum 310 12.8 IS-95 downlink receiver and performance 310 12.9 IS-95 uplink receiver and performance 317 12.10 3GPP-LTE uplink 318 12.11 m-Sequences 321 12.11.1 PN sequences of a shorter period 322 12.11.2 Conditions for m-sequence generators 322 12.11.3 Properties of m-sequence 323 12.11.4 Ways to generate PN sequences 324 12.12 Walsh sequences 327 12.13 CAZAC sequences for LTE-A 327 12.14 Nonorthogonal MA schemes 329 12.15 Summary 330 Problems 330 References 334 13 Wireless MIMO Systems 337 13.1 Introduction 337 13.2 Signal model and mutual information 338 13.3 Capacity with CSIT 339 13.4 Ergodic capacity without CSIT 340 13.4.1 i.i.d. MIMO Rayleigh channels 341 13.4.2 Ergodic capacity for correlated MIMO channels 341 13.5 Capacity: asymptotic results 344 13.5.1 Asymptotic capacity with large MIMO 344 13.5.2 Large SNR approximation 345 13.6 Optimal transceivers with CSIT 346 13.6.1 Optimal eigenbeam transceiver 347 13.6.2 Distributions of the largest eigenvalue 348 13.6.3 Average symbol-error probability 350 13.6.4 Average mutual information of MIMO-MRC 350 13.6.5 Average symbol-error probability 351 13.7 Receivers without CSIT 352 13.8 Optimal receiver 352 13.9 Zero-forcing MIMO receiver 353 13.10 MMSE receiver 355 13.11 VBLAST 357 13.11.1 Alternative VBLAST based on QR decomposition 358 13.12 Space time block codes 359 13.13 Alamouti codes 359 13.13.1 One receive antenna 359 13.13.2 Two receive antennas 360 13.14 General space time codes 362 13.14.1 Exact pairwise error probability 363 13.15 Information lossless space time codes 365 13.16 Multiplexing gain versus diversity gain 365 13.16.1 Two frameworks 366 13.16.2 Derivation of the DMT 367 13.16.3 Available DFs for diversity 368 13.17 Summary 370 Problems 370 References 374 14 Cooperative Communications 377 14.1 A historical review 377 14.2 Relaying 378 14.3 Cooperative communications 379 14.3.1 Cooperation protocols 380 14.3.2 Diversity analysis 382 14.3.3 Resource allocation 384 14.4 Multiple-relay cooperation 385 14.4.1 Multi-relay over frequency-selective channels 386 14.4.2 Optimal matrix structure 389 14.4.3 Power allocation 390 14.5 Two-way relaying 395 14.5.1 Average power constraints 397 14.5.2 Instantaneous power constraint 399 14.6 Multi-cell MIMO 400 14.7 Summary 401 Problems 401 References 402 15 Cognitive Radio 405 15.1 Introduction 405 15.2 Spectrum sensing for spectrum holes 406 15.3 Matched filter versus energy detector 407 15.3.1 Matched-filter detection 407 15.3.2 Energy detection 408 15.4 Detection of random primary signals 410 15.4.1 Energy-based detection 411 15.4.2 Maximum likelihood ratio test 412 15.4.3 Eigenvalue ratio test 413 15.5 Detection without exact knowledge of 2n 414 15.5.1 LRT with 2n 414 15.5.2 LRT without noise-level reference 415 15.6 Cooperative spectrum sensing 416 15.7 Standardization of CR networks 418 15.8 Experimentation and commercialization of CR systems 418 Problems 419 References 420 Index 423

Product Details

  • publication date: 04/12/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781119978671
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 44
  • ID: 9781119978671
  • weight: 944
  • ISBN10: 111997867X

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