Wireless Sensor Networks: A Networking Perspective

Wireless Sensor Networks: A Networking Perspective

By: Jun Zheng (author), Abbas Jamalipour (author)Hardback

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Description

Learn the fundamental concepts, major challenges, and effective solutions in wireless sensor networking This book provides a comprehensive and systematic introduction to the fundamental concepts, major challenges, and effective solutions in wireless sensor networking (WSN). Distinguished from other books, it focuses on the networking aspects of WSNs and covers the most important networking issues, including network architecture design, medium access control, routing and data dissemination, node clustering, node localization, query processing, data aggregation, transport and quality of service, time synchronization, network security, and sensor network standards. With contributions from internationally renowned researchers, Wireless Sensor Networks expertly strikes a balance between fundamental concepts and state-of-the-art technologies, providing readers with unprecedented insights into WSNs from a networking perspective. It is essential reading for a broad audience, including academic researchers, research engineers, and practitioners in industry. It is also suitable as a textbook or supplementary reading for electrical engineering, computer engineering, and computer science courses at the graduate level.

About Author

Jun Zheng, PhD, is a Professor with the School of Information Science and Engineering of the Southeast University, China. He has been involved in extensive research and development in the field of telecommunications engineering for many years. He is a technical editor of IEEE Communications Magazine and the online magazine IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. He has coauthored one book and has published a number of technical papers in refereed journals, magazines, and conference proceedings. An award-winning scientist in the communications technology field, Dr. Zheng is a senior member of the IEEE. Abbas Jamalipour, PhD, is a Professor of Wireless Networking at the University of Sydney, Australia, where he is responsible for teaching and research in wireless data communication networks, wireless IP networks, network security, and cellular communications. He is the Editor in Chief of the IEEE Wireless Communications and technical editor of IEEE Communications Magazine and the International Journal of Communication Science. Dr. Jamalipour has authored or coauthored a dozen books and has published more than 190 papers in major journals and international conferences. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and Engineers Australia, as well as an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer.

Contents

Preface xxiii Acknowledgments xxv About the Editors xxvii Contributors xxix 1. INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 1 Jun Zheng and Abbas Jamalipour 1.1 Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks 1 1.1.1 Network Characteristics 2 1.1.2 Network Applications 3 1.1.3 Network Design Objectives 6 1.1.4 Network Design Challenges 7 1.2 Technological Background 8 1.2.1 MEMS Technology 9 1.2.2 Wireless Communication Technology 9 1.2.3 Hardware and Software Platforms 10 1.2.4 Wireless Sensor Network Standards 12 1.3 Features of This Book 15 1.4 Organization of This Book 15 References 16 2. NETWORK ARCHITECTURES AND PROTOCOL STACK 19 Jun Zheng 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Network Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks 20 2.2.1 Sensor Node Structure 20 2.2.2 Network Architectures 21 2.3 Classifications of Wireless Sensor Networks 24 2.4 Protocol Stack for Wireless Sensor Networks 26 2.4.1 Application Layer 28 2.4.2 Transport Layer 28 2.4.3 Network Layer 29 2.4.4 Data Link Layer 29 2.4.5 Physical Layer 30 2.5 Summary 31 References 31 3. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL 35 Jun Zheng 3.1 Introduction 35 3.2 Fundamental MAC Protocols 36 3.2.1 Contention-Based MAC Protocols 36 3.2.2 Contention-Free MAC Protocols 38 3.3 MAC Design for Wireless Sensor Networks 39 3.3.1 Network Characteristics 39 3.3.2 Objectives of MAC Design 40 3.3.3 Energy Efficiency in MAC Design 41 3.4 MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 42 3.4.1 Contention-Based Protocols 42 3.4.2 Contention-Free Protocols 53 3.4.3 Hybrid Protocols 58 3.5 Summary and Future Directions 61 References 62 4. ROUTING AND DATA DISSEMINATION 67 Sajal K. Das and Habib M. Ammari 4.1 Introduction 67 4.2 Fundamentals and Challenges 68 4.2.1 Fundamentals 68 4.2.2 Challenges 71 4.3 Taxonomy of Routing and Data Dissemination Protocols 73 4.3.1 Location Information 74 4.3.2 Network Layering and In-Network Processing 74 4.3.3 Data Centricity 75 4.3.4 Path Redundancy 75 4.3.5 Network Dynamics 76 4.3.6 Quality of Service Requirements 76 4.3.7 Network Heterogeneity 77 4.4 Overview of Routing and Data Dissemination Protocols 77 4.4.1 Location-Aided Protocols 78 4.4.2 Layered and In-Network Processing-Based Protocols 87 4.4.3 Data-Centric Protocols 93 4.4.4 Multipath-Based Protocols 109 4.4.5 Mobility-Based Protocols 113 4.4.6 QoS Based Protocols 123 4.4.7 Heterogeneity-Based Protocols 129 4.4.8 Comparisons 136 4.5 Summary and Future Directions 137 References 139 5. BROADCASTING, MULTICASTING, AND GEOCASTING 145 Baoxian Zhang and Guoliang Xue 5.1 Introduction 145 5.2 Concepts and Major Challenges 146 5.2.1 Basic Concepts 146 5.2.2 Design Guidelines and Challenges 147 5.3 Broadcasting Mechanisms 149 5.3.1 Simple Broadcasting Mechanisms 149 5.3.2 Neighborhood-Aware Broadcasting Mechanisms 150 5.3.3 Location-Aided Broadcasting Mechanisms 153 5.3.4 Energy-Efficient Broadcasting Mechanisms 156 5.3.5 Reliable Broadcasting Mechanisms 158 5.4 Multicasting Mechanisms 160 5.4.1 Tree-Based Multicasting Mechanisms 161 5.4.2 Location-Based Multicasting Mechanisms 162 5.5 Geocasting Mechanisms 164 5.5.1 Nonguaranteed Geocasting Mechanisms 164 5.5.2 Guaranteed Geocasting Mechanisms 166 5.6 Summary and Future Directions 167 Acknowledgments 168 References 169 6. NODE CLUSTERING 173 Chao Zhang, Edwin Hou, and Nirwan Ansari 6.1 Introduction 173 6.1.1 Wireless Sensor Network Architectures 174 6.1.2 Node Clustering Structures 178 6.2 Node Clustering Algorithms 180 6.2.1 Cluster-Head Election Algorithms 181 6.2.2 Node Clustering Algorithms in Ad Hoc Networks 183 6.3 Node Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks 188 6.3.1 Specialties for Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks 188 6.3.2 Passive Clustering for Efficient Flooding 189 6.3.3 Energy-Efficient Adaptive Clustering 193 6.3.4 Energy-Efficient Distributed Clustering 195 6.3.5 Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Clustering 196 6.3.6 Algorithm for Cluster Establishment 201 6.3.7 Secure Clustering 203 6.4 Summary and Future Directions 208 References 209 7. QUERY PROCESSING AND DATA AGGREGATION 215 Torsha Banerjee and Dharma P. Agrawal 7.1 Introduction 215 7.2 Query Processing in Wireless Sensor Networks 217 7.2.1 Query Characteristics 217 7.2.2 Challenges in Query Processing 220 7.2.3 Sensor Selection for Query Processing 221 7.2.4 Query Processing Techniques 222 7.2.5 Snapshot Querying 225 7.3 Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks 229 7.3.1 Challenges in Data Aggregation 229 7.3.2 Data Aggregation Techniques 230 7.4 Summary and Future Directions 239 References 240 8. NODE LOCALIZATION 243 Nayef A. Alsindi and Kaveh Pahlavan 8.1 Introduction 243 8.2 Concepts and Challenges of Node Localization Technologies 244 8.2.1 Evolution of Localization Technologies 244 8.2.2 Localization Systems 245 8.2.3 Challenges of Node Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks 247 8.3 Ranging Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks 248 8.3.1 TOA Based Ranging 249 8.3.2 RSS Based Ranging 254 8.4 Wireless Localization Algorithms 257 8.4.1 Background 258 8.4.2 Geometrical Triangulation Techniques 258 8.4.3 Pattern Recognition Techniques 262 8.5 Wireless Sensor Node Localization 262 8.5.1 Cooperative Localization 263 8.5.2 Centralized Localization Algorithms 267 8.5.3 Distributed Localization Algorithms 269 8.6 Summary and Future Directions 279 References 280 9. TIME SYNCHRONIZATION 285 Fikret Sivrikaya and Bulent Yener 9.1 Introduction 285 9.1.1 Computer Clocks and the Synchronization Problem 286 9.1.2 Common Challenges for Synchronization Methods 287 9.2 Need for Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks 288 9.3 Requirements of Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks 289 9.4 Synchronization Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 290 9.4.1 Synchronization Primitives 290 9.4.2 Multihop Synchronization 295 9.4.3 Long-Term Synchronization 299 9.4.4 Other Protocols and Relevant Work 302 9.5 Summary and Future Directions 303 References 305 10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND POWER CONTROL 307 Nikolaos A. Pantazis and Dimitrios D. Vergados 10.1 Introduction 307 10.2 Need for Energy Efficiency and Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks 308 10.2.1 Power Consumption in Sensor Nodes 308 10.2.2 Power Control at Different Protocol Layers 311 10.2.3 Classification of Power Conservation Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks 313 10.3 Passive Power Conservation Mechanisms 314 10.3.1 Physical-Layer Power Conservation Mechanisms 314 10.3.2 MAC Layer Power Conservation Mechanisms 318 10.3.3 Higher Layer Power Conservation Mechanisms 320 10.4 Active Power Conservation Mechanisms 327 10.4.1 MAC Layer Mechanisms 327 10.4.2 Network Layer Mechanisms 331 10.4.3 Transport Layer Mechanisms 335 10.5 Summary 337 References 337 11. TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS AND QUALITY OF SERVICE 343 Chonggang Wang, Bo Li, and Kazem Sohraby 11.1 Introduction 343 11.2 Traditional Transport Protocols 346 11.2.1 Principles of Traditional Transport Protocols 346 11.2.2 Disadvantages of TCP and UDP 347 11.3 Transport Protocol Design for Wireless Sensor Networks 349 11.3.1 Performance Metrics 349 11.3.2 Congestion Control 351 11.3.3 Loss Recovery 353 11.3.4 Design Guidelines 355 11.4 Transport Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 356 11.4.1 Protocols for Congestion Control 356 11.4.2 Protocols for Reliability 360 11.4.3 Protocols for Congestion Control and Reliability 363 11.4.4 Open Problems 365 11.5 Summary and Future Directions 366 References 366 12. NETWORK SECURITY AND ATTACK DEFENSE 369 Yun Zhou and Yuguang Fang 12.1 Introduction 369 12.2 Confidentiality 370 12.2.1 Eavesdropping 371 12.2.2 Node Compromise 371 12.2.3 Encryption 372 12.2.4 Privacy 373 12.3 Integrity 374 12.3.1 Transmission Errors 374 12.3.2 Processing Errors 375 12.3.3 Packet Modifications 375 12.3.4 Error Control 375 12.3.5 Message Integrity Code 376 12.4 Authenticity 376 12.4.1 Packet Injection 376 12.4.2 Message Authentication Code 376 12.4.3 Challenge Response 377 12.4.4 Signature 377 12.4.5 Man-in-the-Middle 377 12.4.6 Authenticating Public Key 378 12.4.7 Broadcast and Multicast Authentication 380 12.5 Nonrepudiation 384 12.6 Freshness 385 12.6.1 Packet Replaying 385 12.6.2 Timestamp 386 12.7 Availability 386 12.7.1 Selective Forwarding 387 12.7.2 Radio Jamming 387 12.7.3 Multipath Routing 387 12.7.4 False Reports 388 12.7.5 Node Replication 389 12.8 Intrusion Detection 390 12.9 Key Management 391 12.9.1 Symmetric Key Management 391 12.9.2 Asymmetric Key Management 398 12.9.3 Group Key Management 399 12.10 Summary 400 Acknowledgments 400 References 400 13. SENSOR NETWORK STANDARDS 407 Stefano Chessa 13.1 Introduction 407 13.2 IEEE 802.15.4 Standard 408 13.2.1 Overview of the MAC Layer 409 13.2.2 Channel Access 410 13.2.3 Data-Transfer Models 411 13.2.4 MAC Layer Services 414 13.2.5 Security 417 13.3 ZigBee Standard 418 13.3.1 Network Layer 418 13.3.2 Application Layer 426 13.3.3 Security in ZigBee 430 13.4 Summary 430 References 431 14. FUTURE TRENDS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 433 Mehmet Can Vuran, Dario Pompili, and Tommaso Melodia 14.1 Introduction 433 14.2 Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks 434 14.2.1 Applications of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks 436 14.2.2 Design of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks 437 14.2.3 Ultra-Wideband Technology 439 14.2.4 Cross-Layer Design 441 14.3 Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks 443 14.3.1 Applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks 444 14.3.2 Sensor and Actor Coordination 445 14.4 Sensor Network Applications in Challenging Environments 448 14.4.1 Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks 448 14.4.2 Wireless Underground Sensor Networks 453 14.5 Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Sensor Networks 456 14.5.1 Cross-Layer Resource Allocation 457 14.5.2 Pairwise Cross-Layer Protocols 460 14.5.3 Cross-Layer Module Design 463 14.5.4 Precautionary Guidelines and Open Research Problems 464 14.6 Summary 466 Acknowledgments 466 References 466 Index 471

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470167632
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 520
  • ID: 9780470167632
  • weight: 816
  • ISBN10: 0470167637

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