Witsuwit'en Grammar: Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology (First Nations Languages)

Witsuwit'en Grammar: Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology (First Nations Languages)

By: Sharon Hargus (author)Hardback

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Description

Witsuwit'en is an endangered First Nations language, spoken in western-central British Columbia. A member of the Athapaskan family of languages, the language had been known to have some intriguing characteristics of consonant-vowel interaction, the details of which have been in dispute among scholars. Witsuwit'en Grammar presents acoustic studies of several aspects of Witsuwit'en phonetics, including vowel quality, vowel quantity, ejectives, voice quality, and stress. Information about the sound system and word structure of Witsuwit'en is also provided, revealing many unusual features not previously described in this level of detail for an Athapaskan language. Witsuwit'en has elaborate morphology, even by the standards of the Athapaskan language family. Witsuwit'en Grammar will be of interest to anthropologists interested in the history of the Athapasakan language family, linguists interested in comparative Athapaskan grammar, or any linguist interested in phonetics-phonology or phonology-morphology interaction.

About Author

Sharon Hargus is a professor of linguistics at the University of Washington.

Contents

Contents Author's note Abbreviations Acknowledgements Part 1: Language and Dialect 1 Witsuwit'en 1.1 Geography 1.2 Demographics 1.3 Previous research on Witsuwit'en-Babine 1.4 Witsuwit'en-U'in Wit'en dialects 1.5 Witsuwit'en dialects 1.6 Carrier vs. Witsuwit'en-Babine 1.7 Language name Part 2: Segmental Phonetics and Phonology 2 Consonant contrasts 2.1 Consonant inventory 2.2 Labial consonants 2.3 Nasal consonants 2.4 Voiced vs. voiceless fricatives 2.5 Labio-velar consonants 2.6 /h/ 2.7 V 2.8 Summary 3 Consonant Phonetics 3.1 Ejective stops 3.2 Final glottalic consonants and voice quality 3.3 T- qualifier prefix 3.4 Summary 4 Vowel Quality 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Previous analyses 4.3 An acoustic study of vowel quality 4.4 Summary 4.5 Tables of numerical results 5 Vowel Quantity 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Reduced vs. full vowels 5.3 Long full vowels 5.4 / / lengthening 5.5 A phonetic study of /a/, /aa/ and lengthened / / 5.6 Representation of the reduced and full vowel classes 5.7 Summary 6 Consonant and vowel classes 6.1 Laryngeal features 6.2 Place features 6.3 Manner features 6.4 Summary Part 3: Morphology and Phonological Structure 7 Nouns 7.1 Possessive prefixes 7.2 Pronouns 7.3 Nominal roots 7.4 Compounds 7.5 Plural and vocative forms 7.6 Noun classes 7.7 Nouns derived from other lexical categories 7.8 Loan words 7.9 Summary 8 Postpositions 8.1 Inflection for object of postposition 8.2 Postposition stems: phonological properties 8.3 Postposition stems: semantic properties 8.4 Noun phrases containing postpositional phrases 8.5 Summary 9 Directional system 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Directional morphemes 9.3 Directional words 9.4 Directional adverbs vs. postpositions 9.5 Co-occurrence with verb prefixes 9.6 Lexical items historically derived from directional adverbs 9.7 Summary 10 Adjectives 10.1 Predicate adjectives 10.2 Nominal adjectives 10.3 Post-nominal adjectives 10.4 Summary 11 Numbers 11.1 Cardinal numbers 1-10 11.2 Ordinal forms of numbers 11.3 Numbers: 11+ 11.4 Summary 12 Overview of verb structure 12.1 The lexical verb 12.2 Inflection 12.3 Derivation 12.4 Prefix order restrictions 12.5 Discontinuity 12.6 The verb system 13 Verb roots 13.1 Overview 13.2 The lexical root 13.3 Number 13.4 Ablaut 13.5 Imperative suffixation 14 Verb prefix position classes 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Voice/valence (classifier) 14.3 Inner subject 14.4 Tense/negative/conjugation 14.5 Qualifier 14.6 Pronominal 14.7 Distributive: /n/ 14.8 Incorporated root 14.9 Inceptive /ho/ 14.10 Negative: /we/ 14.11 Multiple: /ye/ 14.12 Iterative: /ne/ 14.13 Preverb: postposition/adverbial 14.14 Summary 14.15 Word external verb theme forming elements 15 Aspectual verb suffixation 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Continuative 15.3 Momentaneous 15.4 Persistive 15.5 Distributive 15.6 Conclusive 15.7 Durative 15.8 Repetitive 15.9 Neuter 15.10 Semelfactive 15.11 Customary 15.12 Progressive 15.13 Summary of aspectual stem variation 16 Verb theme categories 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Active vs. neuter verb themes 16.3 Active verb themes 16.4 Neuter verb themes 16.5 Summary 17 Inflectionally defective verbs 17.1 Third person subject only 17.2 No perfective 17.3 No perfective and no positive 17.4 Suppletive perfective 17.5 No imperfective 17.6 Imperfective negative only 17.7 Imperative only 17.8 No negative 17.9 No tense or subject 17.10 Summary 18 Phonological domains 18.1 Word domain 18.2 Stem domain 18.3 Prefix domain 18.4 Conjunct domain 18.5 Qualifier domain? 18.6 Summary Part 4: Suprasegmental Phonology 19 Syllables 19.1 Syllable types 19.2 Coda consonants 19.3 Word-final rhymes 19.4 Onsetless syllables 19.5 Consonant clusters 19.6 Antigemination 19.7 Syllable weight 19.8 [ ] ~ 0 alternations 19.9 Glides 19.10 Summary 20 Stress 20.1 Previous analyses 20.2 Word stress: qualitative observations 20.3 Phonetic correlates of stress in Witsuwit'en 20.4 Summary Part 5: Prefix Case Studies 21 Morpheme-specific alternation 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Allomorphy as output optimization 21.3 Co-phonologies vs. prespecification 21.4 Summary 22 First person plural subject prefix 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Overview 22.3 V 22.4 V .C 22.5 C .C 22.6 PWd[ .C 22.7 C. 22.8 PWd[C 22.9 Second person singular object + first person plural subject 22.10 Summary 22.11 Cross-linguistic perspective 23 Areal prefix 23.1 Introduction 23.2 The areal prefix in Witsuwit'en 23.3 The verbal areal prefix 23.4 The areal prefix with nouns, postpositions, adjectives and directional adverbs 23.5 Summary 24 D- voice prefix 24.1 Introduction 24.2 The Witsuwit'en pattern 24.3 First person dual subject 24.4 OT analysis 24.5 Thematic and iterative D- voice 24.6 D- combinations 24.7 Summary Part 6: Conclusion 25 Witsuwit'en in comparative and theoretical perspective Appendices 26 Historical phonology 26.1 Consonants 26.2 Reflexes of vowel initial roots 26.3 Vowels 27 Writing systems for Witsuwit'en-Babine 27.1 Introduction 27.2 G j vs. gg g 27.3 Cl vs. gil 27.4 Long full vowels 27.5 Front vowels 27.6 Uwh, eeyh vs. uh, ih 27.7 Glottalized nasals 27.8 Conclusion 28 Verb paradigms 28.1 Imperfective and customary 28.2 Perfective 28.3 Future 28.4 Optative 28.5 Perfective negative 28.6 Non-perfective negative 28.7 Irregular verbs 29 Texts 29.1 Alfred Joseph, 1 July 9, Witsuwit'en summit 29.2 Mabel Forsythe and Lillian Morris talking together, September 7 References Index

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780774813822
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 850
  • ID: 9780774813822
  • weight: 1560
  • ISBN10: 0774813822

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