This original work assesses the impact of globalization on women in Middle Eastern societies. To explore the gendered effects of social change, the authors examine trends within, as well as among, states in the region. Detailed case studies reveal the mixed results of global pressures. For some women, for example, globalization has meant increased access to education and employment; for others, it has resulted in heightened repression under ideologically conservative regimes. The authors' nuanced analyses document how women's responses to these changes are affecting the future of the Middle East.