Farm support is contentious in international negotiations. This in-depth assessment of the legal compliance and economic evaluation issues raised by the WTO Agreement on Agriculture presents consistent support data and forward-looking projections for eight developed and developing countries (EU, US, Japan, Norway, Brazil, China, India, Philippines), using original estimates where official notifications are not available. Variations over time in notified support in some cases reflect real policy changes; others merely reflect shifts in how countries represent their measures. The stalled Doha negotiations presage significantly tighter constraints for developed countries that provide the highest support, but loopholes will persist. Developing countries face fewer constraints and their trade-distorting farm support can rise. Pressure points and key remaining issues if a Doha agreement is reached are evaluated. Vigilant monitoring for compliance of farm support with WTO commitments will be required to lessen its negative consequences whether or not the Doha Round is concluded.
David Orden is Professor and Director of the Global Issues Initiative (GII) of the Institute for Society, Culture and Environment (ISCE) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He is also Senior Research Fellow at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), specializing in domestic farm policy and international trade. David Blandford is Professor of Agricultural and Environmental Economics at Pennsylvania State University, where his research focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of domestic and international policies for agriculture and natural resources. Tim Josling is Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. His research focuses on agricultural policy and food policy in industrialized nations, international trade in agricultural and food products, and the process of economic integration.
Part I. Overview of Domestic Support Issues and WTO Rules: 1. Introduction David Orden, David Blandford and Tim Josling; 2. The WTO disciplines on domestic support Lars Brink; Part II. Developed Countries: Have High Levels of Support Come Down?: 3. European Union Tim Josling and Alan Swinbank; 4. United States David Blandford and David Orden; 5. Japan Yoshihisa Godo and Daisuke Takahashi; 6. Norway Ivar Gaasland, Roberto Garcia and Erling Vardal; Part III. Developing Countries: Will Low Levels of Support Rise?: 7. Brazil Andre Nassar; 8. India Munisamy Gopinath; 9. China Fuzhi Cheng; 10. Philippines Caesar B. Cororaton; Part IV. Looking Forward: Can Fair Markets Be Achieved?: 11. The difficult task of disciplining domestic support David Orden, David Blandford and Tim Josling; Appendix A. Domestic support provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture; Appendix B. Domestic support provisions of the Doha draft modalities.