The Yellow River basin, located in the semi-arid and arid climate zones in northern China, is confronted with serious problems of water deficit as well as water pollution. Due to increasing population, rising living standards, increasing pressure of expanding irrigation areas and developing industries in the basin, efficient water resource allocation has become a pressing issue. On the surface this problem appears domestic, but in reality it is of international proportions - it may impact other countries through trade. As such, development in the basin is severely curtailed.In order to understand and provide a way of thinking about the issues pertaining to the current state of water resources in the basin, The Yellow River systematically explains the methods of modeling and the mechanism of water circulation on each element, while introducing several new-age technologies for water-saving. This book also presents the cutting-edge research results of a five-year project that improved the sustainability in utilizing and controlling water in the Yellow River basin.