Zeolites and Catalysis: Synthesis, Reactions and Applications

Zeolites and Catalysis: Synthesis, Reactions and Applications

By: Avelino Corma (editor), Jiri Cejka (editor), Stacey I. Zones (editor)Hardback

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Description

This indispensable two-volume handbook covers everything on this hot research field. The first part deals with the synthesis, modification, characterization and application of catalytic active zeolites, while the second focuses on such reaction types as cracking, hydrocracking, isomerization, reforming and other industrially important topics. Edited by a highly experienced and internationally renowned team with chapters written by the "Who's Who" of zeolite research.

About Author

Prof. AVELINO CORMA was born in Moncofar, Spain in 1951. He studied Chemistry at the Universidad de Valencia (1967-1973), and received his Ph.D. at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in 1976. He was a Postdoctoral researcher in the Department of chemical engineering at the Queen?s University (Canada, 1977-79). Prof. Corma is the director of the Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica (UPV-CSIC) at the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia since 1990. His current research field is catalysis, and molecular sieves covering aspects of synthesis, characterization and reactivity in acid-base and redox catalysis. Avelino Corma is co-author of more than 700 articles and 100 patents on these subjects. Prof. JIRI CEJKA was born in Roudnice nad Labem, former Czechoslovakia, in 1960. He studied at the Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague and received his Ph.D. at the J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Prague in 1988. At present he is a head of the Department of Synthesis and Catalysis at J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry in Prague and lecturer at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of Charles University in Prague. In 2005 he chaired the 3rd FEZA Conference on Zeolites in Prague. His research interests comprise: synthesis of zeolites, mesoporous and novel nano-structured materials, physical chemistry of sorption and catalysis, and investigation of the role of porous catalysts in transformations of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Jiri Cejka is co-author of about 200 research papers and co-editor of 5 books. Dr. STACEY I. ZONES is a Research Fellow at Chevron's Energy and Technology Center in Richmond, CA, USA. He is the senior researcher in a group which strives to invent and explore newer zeolites and then follow through in finding applications for their use, ways to tailor their properties and methods to develop more econmical routes to introduce them into the commercial world. The group also looks for novel applications of zeolites in emerging technologies. Dr. Zones has been a co-inventor on more than 100 patents and a co-author on more than 100 journal publications. He has also been a frequent speaker and participant in the zeolite conferences around the world, and is a mentoring collaborator for elements of zeolite research programs at several universities.

Contents

Volume 1 Preface XIII List of Contributors XVII 1 Synthesis Mechanism: Crystal Growth and Nucleation 1 Pablo Cubillas and Michael W. Anderson 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Theory of Nucleation and Growth 3 1.2.1 Nucleation 3 1.2.2 Supersaturation 3 1.2.3 Energetics 4 1.2.4 Nucleation Rate 5 1.2.5 Heterogeneous and Secondary Nucleation 5 1.2.6 Induction Time 6 1.2.7 Crystal Growth 6 1.2.8 Crystal Surface Structure 6 1.2.9 2D Nucleation Energetics 8 1.2.10 Spiral Growth 9 1.2.11 Interlaced Spirals 10 1.2.12 Growth Mechanisms: Rough and Smooth Surfaces 10 1.3 Nucleation and Growth in Zeolites 11 1.3.1 Overview 11 1.3.2 Zeolite Nucleation 13 1.3.3 Crystal Growth on Zeolites and Zeotypes 14 1.4 Techniques 15 1.4.1 The Solid Crystal 15 1.4.2 Solution Chemistry Oligomers and Nanoparticles 17 1.4.3 Modeling 21 1.5 Case Studies 23 1.5.1 Zeolite A 23 1.5.2 Silicalite 28 1.5.3 LTL 33 1.5.4 STA-7 35 1.5.5 Zincophosphates 43 1.5.6 Metal Organic Frameworks 47 1.6 Conclusions and Outlook 49 References 50 2 Synthesis Approaches 57 Karl G. Strohmaier 2.1 Introduction 57 2.2 Aluminophosphates 58 2.3 Mineralizers 59 2.4 Dry Gel Conversion Syntheses 61 2.5 Low Water Syntheses 62 2.6 Germanium Zeolites 63 2.7 Isomorphous Substitution 65 2.8 Structure-Directing Agents 67 2.9 SDA Modeling 70 2.10 Co-templating 72 2.11 Layered Precursors 73 2.12 Nonaqueous Solvents 77 2.13 Summary and Outlook 79 Acknowledgments 80 References 80 3 Ionothermal Synthesis of Zeolites and Other Porous Materials 87 Russell E. Morris 3.1 Introduction 87 3.2 Hydrothermal, Solvothermal, and Ionothermal Synthesis 89 3.3 Ionothermal Aluminophosphate Synthesis 90 3.4 Ionothermal Synthesis of Silica-Based Zeolites 92 3.5 Ionothermal Synthesis of Metal Organic Frameworks and Coordination Polymers 92 3.6 Ambient Pressure Ionothermal Synthesis 93 3.7 The Role of Cation-Templating, Co-Templating, or No Templating 95 3.8 The Role of the Anion Structure Induction 97 3.9 The Role of Water and Other Mineralizers 99 3.10 Unstable Ionic Liquids 101 3.11 Summary and Outlook 101 References 102 4 Co-Templates in Synthesis of Zeolites 107 Joaquin Perez-Pariente, Raquel Garcia, Luis Gomez-Hortiguela, and Ana Belen Pinar 4.1 Introduction 107 4.2 Templating of Dual-Void Structures 108 4.3 Crystallization of Aluminophosphate-Type Materials 113 4.4 Combined Use of Templating and Pore-Filling Agents 116 4.5 Cooperative Structure-Directing Effects of Organic Molecules and Mineralizing Anions 117 4.6 Cooperative Structure-Directing Effect of Organic Molecules and Water 119 4.7 Control of Crystal Size and Morphology 122 4.8 Membrane Systems 123 4.9 Use of Co-Templates for Tailoring the Catalytic Activity of Microporous Materials 123 4.10 Summary and Outlook 125 Acknowledgments 127 References 127 5 Morphological Synthesis of Zeolites 131 Sang-Eon Park and Nanzhe Jiang 5.1 Introduction 131 5.2 Morphology of Large Zeolite Crystals 132 5.2.1 Large Crystals of Natural Zeolites 132 5.2.2 Synthesis of Large Zeolite Crystals 133 5.3 Morphology Control of MFI Zeolite Particles (of Size Less than 100 ?m) 138 5.3.1 Dependence of Structure-Directing Agents (SDAs) 139 5.3.2 Dependence on Alkali-Metal Cations 141 5.4 Morphological Synthesis by MW 142 5.4.1 Examples of MW Dependency 142 5.4.2 Morphological Fabrication by MW 143 5.4.3 Formation Scheme of Stacked Morphology 146 5.5 Summary and Outlook 149 Acknowledgments 150 References 150 6 Post-synthetic Treatment and Modification of Zeolites 155 Cong-Yan Chen and Stacey I. Zones 6.1 Introduction 155 6.2 Direct Synthesis of Zeolites 155 6.3 Post-synthetic Treatment and Modification of Zeolites 157 6.3.1 Aluminum Reinsertion into Zeolite Framework Using Aqueous Al(NO3)3 Solution under Acidic Conditions 158 6.3.2 Synthesis of Hydrophobic Zeolites by Hydrothermal Treatment with Acetic Acid 162 6.4 Summary and Outlook 166 Acknowledgments 167 References 167 7 Structural Chemistry of Zeolites 171 Paul A. Wright and Gordon M. Pearce 7.1 Introduction 171 7.2 Zeolite Structure Types Exemplified by Those Based on the Sodalite Cage 172 7.2.1 Introduction 172 7.2.2 The Framework: Secondary Building Units in Zeolite Structural Chemistry 175 7.2.3 Assembling Sodalite Cages: Sodalite, A, Faujasites X and Y, and EMC-2 177 7.2.4 Faujasitic Zeolites X and Y as Typical Examples 178 7.2.5 Key Inorganic Cation-Only Zeolites Pre-1990 179 7.2.6 Structures Templated by Simple Alkylammonium Ions 182 7.2.7 Lessons from Nature 184 7.3 The Expanding Library of Zeolite Structures: Novel Structures, Novel Features 185 7.3.1 Introduction 185 7.3.2 Novel Structures and Pore Geometries 187 7.3.3 Expansion of the Coordination Sphere of Framework Atoms 191 7.3.4 The Current Limits of Structural Complexity in Zeolites 193 7.3.5 Chirality and Mesoporosity 195 7.3.6 Ordered Vacancies and Growth Defects 197 7.3.7 Zeolites from Layered Precursors 198 7.3.8 Substitution of Framework Oxygen Atoms 199 7.4 Summary and Outlook 201 7.4.1 Summary 201 7.4.2 Outlook 202 References 204 8 Vibrational Spectroscopy and Related In situ Studies of Catalytic Reactions Within Molecular Sieves 209 Eli Stavitski and Bert M. Weckhuysen 8.1 Introduction 209 8.2 Acidity Determination with IR Spectroscopy of Probe Molecules 211 8.3 Zeolite Synthesis Processes 218 8.4 Selection of Zeolite-Based Catalytic Reactions 221 8.4.1 Catalytic Decomposition of Nitric Oxides 221 8.4.2 Methanol-to-Olefin Conversion 225 8.5 IR Microspectroscopy 231 8.6 Concluding Remarks and Look into the Future 232 Acknowledgment 234 References 234 9 Textural Characterization of Mesoporous Zeolites 237 Lei Zhang, Adri N.C. van Laak, Petra E. de Jongh, and Krijn P. de Jong 9.1 Introduction 237 9.2 Methods for Generating Meso- and Macropores in Zeolites 239 9.2.1 Postsynthesis Modification 239 9.2.2 Templating Method 243 9.2.3 Other Methods 245 9.3 Characterization of Textural Properties of Mesoporous Zeolites 246 9.3.1 Gas Physisorption 246 9.3.2 Thermoporometry 251 9.3.3 Mercury Porosimetry 255 9.3.4 Electron Microscopy 256 9.3.5 NMR Techniques 266 9.3.6 In situ Optical and Fluorescence Microscopy 271 9.4 Summary and Outlook 273 Acknowledgments 274 References 274 10 Aluminum in Zeolites: Where is it and What is its Structure? 283 Jeroen A. van Bokhoven and Nadiya Danilina 10.1 Introduction 283 10.2 Structure of Aluminum Species in Zeolites 284 10.2.1 Reversible versus Irreversible Structural Changes 285 10.2.2 Cautionary Note 286 10.2.3 Development of Activity and Changing Aluminum Coordination 286 10.3 Where is the Aluminum in Zeolite Crystals? 289 10.3.1 Aluminum Zoning 289 10.3.2 Aluminum Distribution Over the Crystallographic T Sites 292 10.4 Summary and Outlook 296 Acknowledgment 298 References 298 11 Theoretical Chemistry of Zeolite Reactivity 301 Evgeny A. Pidko and Rutger A. van Santen 11.1 Introduction 301 11.2 Methodology 302 11.2.1 Ab initio Methods 303 11.2.2 DFT Methods 303 11.2.3 Basis Sets 304 11.2.4 Zeolite Models 306 11.3 Activation of Hydrocarbons in Zeolites: The Role of Dispersion Interactions 307 11.4 Molecular-Level Understanding of Complex Catalytic Reactions: MTO Process 316 11.5 Molecular Recognition and Confinement-Driven Reactivity 321 11.6 Structural Properties of Zeolites: Framework Al Distribution and Structure and Charge Compensation of Extra-framework Cations 326 11.7 Summary and Outlook 330 References 331 12 Modeling of Transport and Accessibility in Zeolites 335 Sofia Calero Diaz 12.1 Introduction 335 12.2 Molecular Models 336 12.2.1 Modeling Zeolites and Nonframework Cations 336 12.2.2 Modeling Guest Molecules 337 12.3 Simulation Methods 338 12.3.1 Computing Adsorption 339 12.3.2 Computing Free Energy Barriers 341 12.3.3 Computing Volume-Rendered Pictures, Zeolite Surface Areas, and Zeolite Pore Volumes 343 12.3.4 Computing Diffusion 344 12.4 Molecular Modeling Applied to Processes Involving Zeolites 346 12.4.1 Applications in Technological Processes 346 12.4.2 Applications in Green Chemistry 351 12.5 Summary and Outlook 353 Acknowledgments 354 References 354 13 Diffusion in Zeolites Impact on Catalysis 361 Johan van den Bergh, Jorge Gascon, and Freek Kapteijn 13.1 Introduction 361 13.2 Diffusion and Reaction in Zeolites: Basic Concepts 362 13.2.1 Importance of Adsorption 364 13.2.2 Self-Diffusivity 364 13.2.3 Mixture Diffusion 365 13.2.4 Diffusion Measurement Techniques 365 13.2.5 Relating Diffusion and Catalysis 366 13.3 Diffusion in Zeolites: Potential Issues 368 13.3.1 Concentration Dependence of Diffusion 368 13.3.2 Single-File Diffusion 370 13.3.3 Surface Barriers 372 13.3.4 The Thiele Concept: A Useful Approach in Zeolite Catalysis? 374 13.4 Pore Structure, Diffusion, and Activity at the Subcrystal Level 375 13.5 Improving Transport through Zeolite Crystals 379 13.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Outlook 382 References 383 Contents to Volume 2 14 Special Applications of Zeolites 389 Victor Sebastian, Clara Casado, and Joaquin Coronas 15 Organization of Zeolite Microcrystals 411 Kyung Byung Yoon 16 Industrial Potential of Zeolites 449 Giuseppe Bellussi, Angela Carati, and Roberto Millini 17 Catalytically Active Sites: Generation and Characterization 493 Michael Hunger 18 Cracking and Hydrocracking 547 Marcello Rigutto 19 Reforming and Upgrading of Diesel Fractions 585 Carlo Perego, Vincenzo Calemma, and Paolo Pollesel 20 Recent Development in Transformations of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over Zeolites 623 Sulaiman Al-Khattaf, Mohammad Ashraf Ali, and Jiri Cejka 21 Advanced Catalysts Based on Micro- and Mesoporous Molecular Sieves for the Conversion of Natural Gas to Fuels and Chemicals 649 Agustin Martinez, Gonzalo Prieto, Andres Garcia-Trenco, and Ernest Peris 22 Methanol to Olefins (MTO) and Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) 687 Michael Stocker 23 Metals in Zeolites for Oxidation Catalysis 713 Takashi Tatsumi 24 Environmental Catalysis over Zeolites 745 Gabriele Centi and Siglinda Perathoner 25 Zeolites as Catalysts for the Synthesis of Fine Chemicals 775 Maria J. Climent, Avelino Corma, and Sara Iborra 26 Zeolites and Molecular Sieves in Fuel Cell Applications 827 King Lun Yeung and Wei Han Index 863

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527325146
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 918
  • ID: 9783527325146
  • weight: 1958
  • ISBN10: 352732514X

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