This first systematic, authoritative and thorough treatment in one comprehensive volume presents the fundamentals and technologies of the topic, elucidating all aspects of ZnO materials and devices. Following an introduction, the authors look at the general properties of ZnO, as well as its growth, optical processes, doping and ZnO-based dilute magnetic semiconductors. Concluding sections treat bandgap engineering, processing and ZnO nanostructures and nanodevices. Of interest to device engineers, physicists, and semiconductor and solid state scientists in general.
Hadis Morkoc received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University. From 1978 to 1997 he was with the University of Illinois, then joined the newly established School of Engineering at the Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond. He and his group have been responsible for a number of advancements in GaN and devices based on them. Professor Morkoc has authored several books and numerous book chapters and articles. He serves or has served as a consultant to some 20 major industrial laboratories. Professor Morkoc is, among others, a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the Material Research Society, and of the Optical Society of America. Umit Ozgur is a research scientist in the Electrical Engineering Department at Virginia Commonwealth University. He has received BS degrees in EE and physics from Bogazici University, Turkey, and,in 2003, his Ph.D. degree from Duke University, where he has made many contributions to the understanding of ultrafast carrier dynamics in nitride heterostructures. Dr. Ozgur has authored over 50 scientific publications and several book chapters on growth, fabrication, and characterization of wide bandgap semiconductor materials and nanostructures based on group III-nitrides and ZnO. He is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the American Physical Society.
Preface 1 General Properties of ZnO 1.1 Crystal Structure 1.2 Lattice Parameters 1.3 Electronic Band Structure 1.4 Mechanical Properties 1.5 Vibrational Properties 1.6 Thermal Properties 1.7 Electrical Properties of Undoped ZnO 2 ZnO Growth 2.1 Bulk Growth 2.2 Substrates 2.3 Epitaxial Growth Techniques 3 Optical Properties 3.1 Optical Processes in Semiconductors 3.2 Optical Transitions in ZnO 3.3 Defects in ZnO 3.4 Refractive Index of ZnO and MgZnO 3.5 Stimulated Emission in ZnO 3.6 Recombination Dynamics in ZnO 3.7 Nonlinear Optical Properties 4 Doping of ZnO 4.1 n-Type Doping 4.2 p-Type Doping 5 ZnO-Based Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors 5.1 Doping with Transition Metals 5.2 General Remarks about Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors 5.3 Classification of Magnetic Materials 5.4 A Brief Theory of Magnetization 5.5 Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Theoretical Aspects 5.6 Measurements Techniques for Identification of Ferromagnetism 5.7 Magnetic Interactions in DMS 5.8 Theoretical Studies on ZnO-Based Magnetic Semiconductors 5.9 Experimental Results on ZnO-Based Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors 6 Bandgap Engineering 6.1 MgxZn1-xO Alloy 6.2 BexZn1-xO Alloy 6.3 CdyZn1-yO Alloy 7 ZnO Nanostructures 7.1 Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures 7.2 Applications of ZnO Nanostructures 8 Processing, Devices, and Heterostructures 8.1 A Primer to Semiconductor-Metal Contacts 8.2 Ohmic Contacts to ZnO 8.3 Schottky Contacts to ZnO 8.4 Etching of ZnO 8.5 Heterostructure Devices 8.6 Piezoelectric Devices 8.7 Sensors and Solar Cells Based on ZnO Nanostructures 8.8 Concluding Remarks