Plant Defense provides an overview of all major aspects of plant defence, including defence against pathogens, parasites, and invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores. The book looks at defense mechanisms including structural and chemical defences, and constitutive and inducible defences. Including details of how plants 'sense' attack and how this is communicated within the plant and also to neighbouring plants, how plants coordinate defence responses to simultaneous multiple attacks, and the energy and resources expended by a plant in maintaining and implementing its defence systems.
Dale Walters is based at Crop & Soil Systems Research Group, Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh, U. K.
Preface. Chapter 1. Why Do Plants Need Defenses? 1.1 Plants as sources of food. 1.2 Organisms that use plants as food. 1.2.1 Microorganisms. 1.2.2 Parasitic angiosperms. 1.2.3 Nematodes. 1.2.4 Insects. 1.2.5 Vertebrates. 1.3 Impact of infection and herbivory in natural and agricultural ecosystems. 1.3.1 Microorganisms. 1.3.2 Parasitic angiosperms. 1.3.3 Nematodes. 1.3.4 Insects. 1.3.5 Vertebrates. 1.4 Conclusions. Recommended reading. References. Chapter 2. What Defenses Do Plants Use? 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Defenses used against pathogens. 2.2.1 Background. 2.2.2 Passive or preexisting defenses. 18.104.22.168 Preexisting structural defenses. 22.214.171.124 Preexisting chemical defenses. 2.2.3 Active or inducible defenses. 126.96.36.199 Inducible structural defenses. 188.8.131.52 Inducible chemical defenses. 2.2.4 Defenses used against pathogens-the next step. 2.3 Defenses used against parasitic plants. 2.3.1 Background. 2.3.2 Preattachment defense mechanisms. 2.3.3 Prehaustorial defense mechanisms. 2.3.4 Posthaustorial defense mechanisms. 2.4 Defenses used against nematodes. 2.4.1 Background. 2.4.2 Passive or preexisting defenses. 2.4.3 Active or inducible defenses. 184.108.40.206 Phenylpropanoid metabolism. 220.127.116.11 Hypersensitive response. 2.5 Defenses used against herbivorous insects. 2.5.1 Background. 2.5.2 Physical barriers. 18.104.22.168 Waxes on the leaf surface. 22.214.171.124 Trichomes. 126.96.36.199 Secretory canals. 188.8.131.52 Leaf toughness and leaf folding. 2.5.3 Chemical defenses. 184.108.40.206 Terpenes. 220.127.116.11 Phenolics. 18.104.22.168 Nitrogen-containing organic compounds. 22.214.171.124 Arthropod-inducible proteins. 126.96.36.199 Volatile compounds. 2.6 Defenses used against vertebrate herbivores. 2.6.1 Background. 2.6.2 Physical defenses. 2.6.3 Chemical defenses. 188.8.131.52 Phenolic compounds. 184.108.40.206 Terpenoids. 220.127.116.11 Nitrogen-containing compounds. 18.104.22.168 Other chemicals. 22.214.171.124 A final word on chemical defenses against vertebrate herbivory. 2.7 Defenses used against neighboring plants-allelopathy. 2.7.1 Background. 2.7.2 Allelopathy and the black walnut. 2.7.3 Allelopathy and the Californian chaparral. 2.7.4 Allelopathy and spotted knapweed. 2.8 Conclusions. Recommended reading. References. Chapter 3. Sounding the Alarm: Signaling and Communication in Plant Defense. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Signaling in plant-pathogen interactions. 3.2.1 Introduction. 3.2.2 Local signaling and basal resistance. 126.96.36.199 SA signaling. 188.8.131.52 JA signaling. 184.108.40.206 ET signaling. 220.127.116.11 Signaling involving other plant hormones. 3.2.3 Systemic signaling and induced resistance. 18.104.22.168 Induced resistance. 22.214.171.124 Signaling during SAR. 126.96.36.199 Signaling during ISR. 188.8.131.52 Priming. 3.2.4 Volatile signaling. 3.3 Signaling in plant-nematode interactions. 3.3.1 Introduction. 3.3.2 SA signaling. 3.3.3 JA signaling. 3.4 Signaling in plant-insect herbivore interactions. 3.4.1 Introduction. 3.4.2 Local signaling. 184.108.40.206 JA signaling. 220.127.116.11 ET signaling. 18.104.22.168 SA signaling. 22.214.171.124 Specificity and regulation of jasmonate-based defenses. 3.4.3 Systemic signaling. 126.96.36.199 Systemin. 188.8.131.52 JA signaling. 184.108.40.206 Within leaf signaling. 3.4.4 Volatile signaling. 3.4.5 Priming. 3.5 Signaling in interactions between plants and vertebrate herbivores. 3.6 Signaling in interactions between plants and parasitic plants. 3.7 Conclusions. Recommended reading. References. Chapter 4. Plant Defense in the Real World: Multiple Attackers and Beneficial Interactions. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Dealing with multiple attackers: cross-talk between signaling pathways. 4.2.1 Trade-offs associated with triggering SA-mediated defenses. 220.127.116.11 SA suppression of JA-induced defenses. 18.104.22.168 Molecular basis of SA suppression of JA defenses. 22.214.171.124 Ecological costs of resistance to biotrophic versus necrotrophic pathogens. 126.96.36.199 Trade-offs with mutualistic symbioses. 188.8.131.52 Effects of SA- and JA-mediated defenses on bacterial communities associated with plants. 4.2.2 Triggering SA-dependent defenses does not always compromise defense against insect herbivores. 4.2.3 Trade-offs and positive outcomes associated with triggering JA-dependent defenses. 4.2.4 Putting it all together: orchestrating the appropriate defense response. 4.3 Can beneficial plant-microbe interactions induce resistance in plants? 4.3.1 Introduction. 4.3.2 Induction of resistance by mycorrhizas. 4.3.3 Resistance induced by endophytic and other beneficial fungi. 4.4 Conclusions. Recommended reading. References. Chapter 5. The Evolution of Plant Defense. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Hypotheses of plant defense. 5.2.1 The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis. 5.2.2 Optimal defense hypotheses. 5.2.3 Plant apparency hypothesis. 5.2.4 The carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis. 5.2.5 The growth rate hypothesis. 5.2.6 Hypotheses of plant defense-where next? 5.3 Evolution of plant defense strategies. 5.3.1 The univariate trade-off hypothesis. 5.3.2 The resistance-regrowth trade-off hypothesis. 5.3.3 The plant apparency hypothesis. 5.3.4 The resource availability hypothesis. 5.3.5 Plant defense syndromes. 5.4 Patterns of plant defense evolution. 5.4.1 Adaptive radiation. 5.4.2 Escalation of defense potency. 5.4.3 Phylogenetic conservatism. 5.4.4 Phylogenetic escalation and decline of plant defense strategies. 5.5 Why do plants have induced defenses? 5.5.1 Costs. 184.108.40.206 Allocation costs associated with induced responses to herbivory. 220.127.116.11 Allocation costs associated with induced responses to pathogens. 5.5.2 Targeting of inducible direct defenses. 5.5.3 Targeting of inducible indirect defenses. 5.5.4 Dispersal of damage. 5.5.5 Possible role of pathogenic bacteria in the evolution of SAR. 5.5.6 Conclusion. 5.6 The coevolutionary arms race . 5.7 Conclusions. Recommended reading. References. Chapter 6. Exploiting Plant Defense. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Using plant resistance to protect crops-breeding. 6.2.1 Introduction. 6.2.2 Breeding for resistance. 18.104.22.168 Sources of resistance. 22.214.171.124 Breeding methods and selection strategies. 6.2.3 Resistance in practice. 6.2.4 Types of resistance. 126.96.36.199 Monogenic resistance. 188.8.131.52 Polygenic resistance. 184.108.40.206 Durable resistance. 220.127.116.11 Gene-for-gene concept. 6.2.5 Making life more difficult for the attacker. 6.3 Using plant resistance to protect crops-induced resistance. 6.3.1 Introduction. 6.3.2 Induced resistance for pathogen control. 6.3.3 Induced resistance for control of herbivorous insects. 6.3.4 Induced resistance for control of nematodes and parasitic plants. 6.4 Using plant resistance to protect crops-biotechnological approaches. 6.4.1 Introduction. 6.4.2 Engineering resistance to pathogens. 6.4.3 Engineering resistance to insects. 6.4.4 Prospects for using transgenic resistance. 6.5 Conclusions. Recommended reading. References. Index.