Parks are important economic vehicles, generating billions of dollars worldwide in tourism revenue. However, the reasons for that visitation are found in the non-material, non-economic values that parks offer to people: values that are cultural, therapeutic, scientific, spiritual, recreational, educational, and aesthetic/artistic. The Full Value of Parks is the first comprehensive analysis of these important, but intangible, values.
David Harmon is executive director of the George Wright Society. Allen Putney is a consultant on protected areas.
Chapter 1 1. Introduction: Perspectives on the Values of Protected Areas Chapter 2 2. The Source and Significance of Values in Protected Areas Chapter 3 3. Conserving the Sacred: The Protective Impulse and the Origins of Modern Protected Areas Chapter 4 4. Managing the Intangible Chapter 5 5. Recreational Values of Protected AreasJ Chapter 6 6. The Social Value of the Nyangkpe Sacred Forests of South West Province of Cameroon Chapter 7 7. The Cultural Values of Protected Areas Chapter 8 8. Life and the Nature of Life-in Parks Chapter 9 9. Aesthetic Values and Protected Areas: A Story of Symbol Preservation Chapter 10 10. National Parks as Scientific Benchmark Standards for the Biosphere; Or, How are You Going to Tell How it Used to Be, When There's Nothing Left to See? Chapter 11 11. Therapeutic Values of Parks and Protected Areas Chapter 12 12. Ishmael's Inclinations: Non-Use Values of Marine Protected Areas Chapter 13 13. National Parks versus Protected Landscapes? Legitimacy, Values, and the Management of the Colombian Tropical Wildlands Chapter 14 14. Biosphere Reserves: Tangible and Intangible Values Chapter 15 15. World Heritage Sites: Towards Linking the Tangible and the Intangible Chapter 16 16. Community-Conserved Biodiverse Areas: Lessons from South Asia Chapter 17 17. Strictly Protected Areas: The Russian System of Zapovedniks Chapter 18 18. Protected Landscapes in the Andean Context: Worshipping the Sacred in Nature and Culture Chapter 19 19. Parks as Battlegrounds: Managing Conflicting Values Chapter 20 20. Wilderness as Contested Ground Chapter 21 21. Battling Religions in Parks and Forest Reserves: Facing Religion in Conflicts over Protected Places Chapter 22 22. Wirikuta: The Wixarika/Huichol Sacred Natural Site in the Chihuahuan Desert, San Luis Potosi, Mexico Chapter 23 23. Intangible Values and Protected Areas: Towards a More Holistic Approach to Management